Ƞ

----------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

i

i i

 

 

 

 

 

 

. Բֲߠ .

 

 

 

 

 

 

.2.1-2-96 25100-95

( 25100-95)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ii堠

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i | -

i i | -

i 1997 | 蠠 蠠

|

 


 

ࠠ |

1 ɠ | 1

-- | -

i i i- | -

i- | -

i () | 젠 ⠠

-i i- | () -

i | -

䠠 i. |

(), i | .

⠠ | (), -

i (- | 頠

), - | (-

i i- | ), -

(), - |  --

-i i | (-

i | ), --

() i - | -

i | 

| () -

|

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i i |

2 ɠ | 2

i -- | -

i ii - | 頠

i i i - | -

⠠ ii | -

() 19 i 1995 . | () 19

| 1995 .

: | :

---------------------------- | -----------------------------

- | | - |

| - | 堠 | -

| i- | |  -

| i- | | -

| 젠 | |

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i | i- | | -

ii | 蠠 | |

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i | i䠠 | |

| | |

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ࠠ | 䠠 | |

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iࠠ | i䠠 | |

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i | 䠠 | |

| | |

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i | i- | | -

| 䠠 | |

---------------------------- | -----------------------------

ࠠ | i- | ࠠ | -

| | |

 


3 ɠ | 3

젠 i- | Ҡ 25100-82

蠠 189 i |

01.11.96 ࠠ i |

25100-82 |

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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i- |

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"i"

 

 

 


 

i򠠠 |

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1 .....1 | 1 .......1

2 i ....2 | 2 .......2

..............2 | 3 .............2

4 i ......2 | 4 ........2

5 ii ............3 | 5 ...........

|

i ..20 | ..20

|

i i ......32 | ...32

|


 

 

Ƞ

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i i

i

 

. Բֲ

 

-

 

. ߠ Ӡ .2.1-2-96

( 25100-95)

Bases and foundations of

building and structures

 

SUILS. CLASSIFICATION

------------------------------------------------------------

i 1997-04-01 | 1996-07-01

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ii堠 |

 

 


 

2 Ͳ ߠ | 2

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5180-84 | .

|

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10650-72 | .

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11306-83 | .

|

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12536-79 | .

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23161-78 | . 

|

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23740-79 | .

|

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24143-80 | .

|

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25584-90 | . 

|

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(砠 젠 | );

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; | ;

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ꠠ ࠠ i | );

 

 


 

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| .

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5 Բֲߠ | 5

|

5.1 񠠠 | 5.1 񠠠

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蠠 |

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i) ii- | )

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1. | 1.

5.2 񠠠 | 5.2 񠠠

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ii , | , -

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5.3 񠠠 | 5.3 񠠠

i* - | * -

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ࠠ i蠠 i | 蠠

3. | 3.

 

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* i , i

'i ( i i

), i i.

,

( ),

.

 

 

 


 

5.4 | 5.4

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| -

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i (i) | () -

i . | .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

I | I

i⠠ |

 

 

 

1

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񠠠 | | iࠠ |  | 䠠 | i

񠠠 | | |  | 䠠 |

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

i ( -|i |- |-|i-| |, i-|i :

-||i |i |i |󠠠 |, ii蠠 |1 i-

' -| |-|-|-| |, -| i -

ii- | | ||堠 |ࠠ |, | -

-| | | | |------------------------------------|

i) | | | | | |, i,| i;

| | | | | |, i-|2 ii -

( -| | | | | |, ii -| ;

-| | | | | |i, |3 ii -

-| | | | | |, ,| iii;

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) | | | | | |, -|5 -

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| | | | | |i, ii,| i;

| | | | | |i, -|7 젠 -

| | | | | |i i蠠 | i;

| | | | | |, ,|8

| | | | | |, -| ;

| | | | | | |9

| | | | |------------------------------------|

| | | | | |i, i-| :

| | | | | |, i i-|1 -

| | | | | |i, i,|

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| | |-| | |, |5 -

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| | || | | | ;

| | | | | | |7 -

| | | | | | | ;

| | | | | | |8 -

| | | | | | | ;

| | | | | | |9

-------------------------------

* , ii ii

,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

i

1

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| ࠠ | iࠠ |  | 䠠 | i

| | ࠠ |  | 䠠 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| i | - | - | i-| | , - |

| | i | i | i | | -i |

| | - | - | -| | *, i- |

| | 堠 | 堠 | 堠 | | , i蠠 |

| | | | | | , - |

| | | | | | -堠 |

| | | | | | *, - |

| | | | | | , |

| | | | |---------------------------------------|

| | | | | | i, , |

| | | | | | i蠠 |

| | | | | | , , |

| | | | | | |

| |--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| | ii | i- | , i, |

| | 堠 | i | 蠠 |

| | | - | , , |

| | | 堠 | |

| | |-------------------------------------------------|

| | | - | , , |

| | | i | 蠠 |

| | | - | , , |

| | | 堠 | |

| | |-------------------------------------------------|

| | | i- | ii 蠠 |

| | | 頠 | |

| | | - | |

| | | 堠 | |

| |-----------------------------------------------------------------------|

| | i | i- | i, - |

| | 堠 | i | , i, |

| | | - | i蠠 |

| | | 堠 | , - |

| | | | , , |

| | | | |

| | |-------------------------------------------------|

| | | - | *, i |

| | | i | *, - |

| | | - | |

| | | 堠 | |

|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------|

| i- | i | i- | -- |

| i | 堠 | i | i * |

| - | | - | -- |

| | | 堠 | * |

| |-----------------------------------------------------------------------|

----------------------------

* , ii ii

,

 

 

 

 


i i

1

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

| ࠠ | i |  | 䠠 | i

| | |  | 䠠 |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

| i- | i | i- |i, -|

| i | | i |i, i蠠 |

| - | | - |, -|

| | | 堠 |, 蠠 |

| | |-----------------------------|

| | | - |, ,|

| | | i |ii蠠 |

| | | - |, ,|

| | | 堠 | |

| | |-----------------------------|

| | | - |, i,|

| | | i |* |

| | | - |, , -|

| | | 堠 |* |

| | |-----------------------------|

| | | - |i, i |

| | | i |, |

| | | - | |

| | | 堠 | |

| | |-----------------------------|

| | | i |i, i |

| | | - |, |

| | | 堠 | |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------

* , ii ii

,

 

 

 


 

II | II

i⠠ |

2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

񠠠 | |i |  | 䠠 | i

񠠠 | ||  | 䠠 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

i ( -|'i|i |i- |i-|i 蠠 |i :

i蠠 ||- |i |i | |1 (-

| |堠 |- |- | | i i);

蠠 | | |堠 |i | |2 i -

') | | | |i-| | (i

(| | | |i | | );

| | | |ii| |Ǡ ii -

| | | |i| | (i);

蠠 | | | |-| |4 i (i

) | | | |堠 | | );

| | | |- | |5 i i

| | | | | | (i )

| | | |-| |6 i i i

| | | |堠 | | (i );

| | | |-| |7 ii (-

| | | |-| | -i i);

| | | |堠 | |8 ii i (i);

| | | | | |9 ii (i);

| | |------------------------------------|10 ii iii (-

| | |ii |蠠 | i );

| | ||i |11 ii i (-

| | | |i | i );

| | | | |

| | | |蠠 |12 i i i

| | | | -| (i i

| | | | | );

| | |------------------------------------|13 ();

| | |ii | i. |

| | |堠 | . |14 i ();

-----------------------------------------------------------------------|15 i;

|'-| |i- |i-|i蠠 |16 i i ;

|i | |i |i |i |17

|-| |- |- |蠠 | :

|堠 | |堠 |i |蠠 |1 (

| | | |i-| | - );

| | | |i | |2 -

| | | |ii| | (

| | | |i| | );

| | | |-| |3 -

| | | |堠 | | ();

| | | |- | |4 (

| | | | | | );

| | | |-| |5 -

| | | |堠 | | (

| | | |-| | );

| | | |-| |6 -

| | | |堠 | | ( );

 

 

 


i i

2

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

񠠠 | ࠠ | i |  | | i

񠠠 | | |  | |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| | | | | | 7 (-

| | | | | | );

| | | | | | 8 ();

| | | | | | 9 ();

| | | | | | 10 (-

| | | | | | );

| | | | | | 11 (-

| | | | | | );

| | | | | | 12 -

| | | | | | (

| | | | | | );

| | | | | | 13 ();

| | | | | | 14 ();

| | | | | | 15 ;

| | | | | | 16 ;

| | | | | | 17

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

i. (- | . (-

i, i, ii, | , , ,

i, 'i i.) | , .)

i ࠠ i | 

ii |

i . | .

 


 

III | III

i⠠ |

 

 

3

3

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

񠠠 | | iࠠ |  | 䠠 | i

񠠠 | | ࠠ |  | 䠠 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

i ( i-|i |i |i |i ii|i i, |i :

蠠 -|||i | -| |1 i

'-| | |ii |堠 |i⠠ |

) | | |i | | , | -

( -| | |堠 | | | ;

蠠 -| | |堠 | | |2 -

)| | || | | ii

| | |堠 | | | ;

|--------| |---------------| | | -

|i- | |i | | | i;

|i | |i | | |4 i -

|- | |堠 | | |

|| |堠 | | |

|--------| |----------------------------------------------------| :

|'i | |i |i ii|i i, |1

| | |堠 | -| |

| | | |堠 |i⠠ | -

| | | |------------------| , 蠠 | ;

| | | |i -| |2 -

| | | |ii |⠠ |

| | | | -| | ;

| | | |堠 | |3 -

| | | |------------------| | ;

| | | |i ii | |4

| | | | -| |

| | | |堠 | |

|------------------------------------------------------------------------|

|i |ii (i-|蠠 |-- |

| |i) | |ii,i'ii,|

| | (- | |i |

| |) | |- - |

| | | |, -|

| | | |, |

| |--------------------------| |-----------------|

| |i | | - ii, |

| |堠 | |ii, i, |

| | | |i, i, |

| | | |iiii |

| | | |(ii) |

| | | | - , |

| | | |, , |

| | | |, , |

| | | | |

| | | |() |

| |--------------------------| |-----------------|

| |-i | |-i,-|

| |-堠 | |i, |

| | | | |

| | | |-,-|

| | | |, |

| | | |堠 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 


 

IV i | IV

(, | (,

) | )

 

 

4

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| | iࠠ |  | 䠠 | i

| | ࠠ |  | 䠠 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

i |i |i -|ii i|i i, |i i, |i

|i- |, ii -|젠 | -| |iii i-

|i | -| -| i⠠ | i| i -

|| | -| , | , | i

|- | -|젠 | | -| -

||, |----------------|⠠ | ⠠ |i -

| | -|ii i- | | | -

| | |i | | | -

| | | -| | | i

| | |-젠 | | |

| | |젠 | | |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|

-|'i |i -|ii i|i i, |i i, |

i | |, ii -|젠 | -| |

-| | -| -| -| ࠠ |

堠 | | | -| i (-| i|

| | -|젠 |) |) |

| |, |----------------| , | , | -

| | -|ii i- | -| -|

| | |i | 蠠 | |

| | | -| (-| (- |

| | |-젠 |) |) |

| | |젠 | | |

| |-----------------------------------| | |

|'-|i i-|i | | |

|i |i |堠 | | |

|- | -|----------------| | |

|堠 | |i | | |

| | |堠 | | |

| |-----------------------------------------------------------------------|

| |i -|i |i |i i|

| | |堠 |ࠠ |i i- |

| | -|----------------|ii |: ii|

| | |i | -|i, , |

| | |堠 | -|, , |

| | | | -| i.|

| | | |蠠 | . |

| | | | | -|

| | | | |: -|

| | | | | , -|

| | | | |, , ,|

| | | | | . |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

i i

4

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| | iࠠ |  | 䠠 | i

| | ࠠ |  | 䠠 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

i |i |i -|ii i|i i, |i |

|i- |, ii -|() | -| i |

|i | -|堠 -| i⠠ | |

| | | ()| , | |

|- | -|젠 | | |

| |, |------------------|⠠ | |

| | -|ii i-i-| | |

| | |i 젠 | | |

| | | -| | |

| | | -| | |

| | |젠 | | |

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|

|'i |i | ii i (- | |i |

|'i|,| ) 젠 | | i|

|i |ii | 堠 | | |

| | | () | | |

|||--------------------------| | |

| | | ii i-ii | | |

| | | 젠 | | |

| |- | -- | | |

| |, -| 젠 | | |

| |堠 | | | |

| | | | | |

| |-| | | |

| | -| | | |

| | | | | |

| |-------------------------------------| | |

| |i | i | ii | | |

| |ii| i | i젠 | | |

| | | 堠 | () | | |

| | | 堠 | ii- | | |

| |-| | i젠 | | |

| | -| | 젠 | | |

| | | | | | |

| |-----------------------| | |------------------|

| |- | i | () | |i i.|

| |i -| i | - | |i i-|

| | | i | -- | |: ii|

| |- | 堠 | - | |i, ,|

| | -| 堠 | | |, , -|

| | | - | | | i. -|

| | | 堠 | | |i 蠠 |

| | | | | |堠 .|

| | | | | |堠 -|

| | | | | |: |

| | | | | |, ,|

| | | | | |, , -|

| | | | | | . -|

| | | | | | |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 


 

|

(') | ()

|

̲ ߠ |

|

- ii , | - ,

, i - | , -

, - | , 堠

ࠠ - | -

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'젠 i- | -

ii - | - -

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3) i젠 | 3) -

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ii, i i | , -

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i . | .

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i ii, | 蠠 ,

i i i |

' i . | .

ࠠ i |

i | 蠠 蠠

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ii ࠠ | 堠

(R => 5 - i | (R=> 5 - ,

, R < 5 - i- | R < 5 -

i ). | ).

|

頠 - | 򠠠 頠 -

,  | ,

i | ()

() i i, | , -

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; - | ⠠ 堠

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| .

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|

ࠠ 󠠠 - | ࠠ ࠠ -

ii - |

i , - | , -

 

 

 


 

i - | -

i (i, | (,

, ii ii- | ,

), (- | ),

i - | (

i) - | )

( - | (

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ii i | -

i . | -

| .

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- | 堠

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(i, ii | (,

i.). | .).

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| ࠠ -

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ii-i頠 | -

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ii, - | ,

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|

򠠠 頠 - | - -

' i , | , -

ຠ i | 젠

I >= 1. | I >= 1.

|

i - ' i- | - -

. ⠠ | , -

i | 2

2 ຠ i 50 % | 50 % (I=0).

(I = 0). |

|

- | -

' i | ,

i | -

i 2 ຠ i | 2

50 %. | 50 %.

|

렠 - | - -

頠 䠠 | -

i, | , -

i i | -

i i | -

 

 

 


 

.  i | . -

ii | -

i >= 0,9, | >= 0,9,

i IL > , i | IL > ,

0,01 | 堠

30-50 % . | 0,01 30-50 %

| .

|

- i- | -

, | , -

i 砠 i |

- | -

ii i i |

i 10 % (ࠠ ) | 10 % ( ) -

i - | -

i - | .

i. i- |

i i > 3, | > 3, -

, i | ,

IL > 1, i | IL > 1,

- i i | -

0,25 | 0,25

5 % . | 5 % .

|

- i | -

, - | , -

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- |

|

i i | -

i i i | -

50 % ( ) i | 50 % ( )

i . | .

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i i 10 50% ( | 10 50% (

) . | ) .

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i. | .

|

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i 'i |

i i - | 蠠 򠠠

( i - | ( -

) sw >= 0,04. |  )

| Esw >= 0,04.

|

򠠠 i頠 - | 頠 -

, 頠 i䠠 | ,

i | -

 

 

 


 

i i | -

i | -

 i i | -

- | -

i (i) ࠠ | ()

i i i- | -

Esl >= 0,01. | Esl >= 0,01.

|

頠 - | 򠠠 頠 -

, i | ,

i- |

'i i | -

i |

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Eph >= 0,01.|

| Eph >= 0,01.

|

i  - | -

i - , | - ,

i i |

, - | , -

i - | -

Efh , .., | Efh ,

| ..,

| :

 

ho,f - ho

Efh = ----------, (1)

ho

 

h,f - - | h,f -

, ; h - - | , ;

| h -

, . | ,

| .

|

i i - | -

, | ,

ii - | 

i Dsl, %. | Dsal, %.

|

ii |

ꠠ R, | R, ,

, - i - | - ,

, |

, i | , -

i - | .

i. |

|

ii - |

- ii | - d,

d, /3, | /3, -

: | :

 

p

pd = -------, (2)

1 + W

 

 

 


 

- ii , | - ,

/3; | /3;

W - i , .. | W - , ..

|

ii iii |

wr, .. - i i- | wr, .. - -

i ii |

ii i - | .

. |

|

ii '- | -

i i sof, .. - | sof, .. -

i ii |

|

i- | --

- i. | .

|

i i |

i - , | - , -

iຠ i i |

i - | -

ii - | -

qsr, /. | qsr, /.

|

i i | -

- , i- | - , -

i i - |

i |

ii |

iii ii , | ,

/. | /.

25584. | 25584.

|

| 頠 -

- ii ii | - -

i i | -

. - | .

12536. | 12536.

|

i ii |

| 

- ꠠ ii | - -

- | -

: | . -

| :

d60

C = ------, ()

d10

 

d60, d10 - i - | d60, d10 - -

, , i | , ,

i ii 60 | -

10 % ( ) . | 60 10 % ( )

| .

|

i I - | I -

i , i- | , -

 

 

 


 

i - | 젠

: i i WL | :

i i | WL

W * WL W | Wp * WL Wp

5180. | 5180.

|

i IL - | IL

i ii - | - -

, ii | , -

: W | : -

i i | W -

W, i | Wp, -

I. | Ip.

|

i i - |

Esw,| Esw ,

.. - i i | .. -

i |

i | -

i - |

 |

 i. | .

24143. | 24143.

|

iࠠ i |

i Esl , .. - i- | Esl , .. -

ii - | -

i, ii, | , , -

i ࠠ i |

| -

|

 i, | .

23161. | 23161.

|

ii - | -

Sr, .. - i - | Sr, .. - -

' . - | ࠠ .

: | :

 

W ps

Sr = -------, (4)

e pw

 

W - i | W -

, ..; | , ..;

- ii i; | - ;

s - ii - | s - ,

, /3; | /3;

w - ii , - | w - , -

i 1 /3. | 1 /3.

|

ii i |

: | :

 

ps - pd

e = ---------, (5)

pd

 

 

 


 

s - ii | s -

, /3; | , /3;

d - ii - | d - ,

, /3. | /3.

i ii i- |

i ID - | ID :

: |

 

emax - e

ID = ----------- , (6)

emax - emin

 

- ii i | - -

| -

i; | ;

max - ii i | max -

i - | ;

i; |

min - ii i | min -

i. | .

ii iii |

i wr, | wr,

.., - | .., -

: | :

 

K1 - K0

Kwr = ---------, (7)

K1

 

1 - i | 1 - 堠

i 2 | 2

蠠 ꠠ i |

i 2 i - | 2 -

- | ;

i; | 0 - , -

0 - , | .

i. |

ii i |

i fr, | fr,

.., - | .., -

: | :

 

q1

Kfr = ----, (8)

q0

 

q1 - i | 堠 q1 - ࠠ

2 i - | 2 -

- | -

i ( i | (

i 2 ) | 2 )

i; | ;

q0 - | q0 -

i ( | (

) | ).

|

i i - |

 

 

 


 

i Ir, .. - | ࠠ Ir,

i - | .. -

i - |

. - |   .

23740. | 23740.

|

i |

Ddp, % - - | Ddp, % - , -

, i i |

(i- | 頠 (

) , | ) , -

ii |

ii ii | -

i , i | ,

. | . -

10650. | 10650.

|

i i |

Das, .. - , | Das, .. - ,

i i |

i |

i - |

i. - | .

11306. | 11306.

|

- , | - ,

i | 頠

, i | , -

i i i |

i () i- | 蠠 ()

i- | - -

'. |

| .

|

i- |

(i " i- | ( - " -

") - , - | ") - ,

i - |

i | .

i i. |

|

- | -

,  | ,

i i | -

. | .

|

- - | - -

, ຠ i | , -

i i | 蠠

i i - |

. | .

|

| 򠠠

(i - " ") | ( - " ")

- i | -

, i | ,

, - | , -

 

 

 


 

i | -

. | .

|

頠 - | 頠 -

頠 , | ,

i , | ,

i ࠠ | -

|

. | .

|

- | -

- , | - , -

ii |

i '. | .

|

- | 頠 -

, i - | , -

, - | , -

i |

ࠠ | -

i ii | -

. | .

|

| -

- , - | , -

, , | ,

ຠ ' - | -

i i | .

ii . |

|

- | -

(i) | () bf(h)

bf(h) - ,.,| - ,., -

i |

' () i. | () .

|

ii i | 堠

' - i- | - -

ii ', | ,

i- | -

|

ii i |

i | 堠

. | .

|

i ࠠ - | ࠠ -

i ꠠ | -

, - | , -

i, i- | , -

- | -

i i i | -

i | -

-. | -.

|

i (i - " | ( - "

") - - | ") - -

,  | , 砠 -

 

 

 


 

i | -

i i- |

i |

i 10 % ( '), | 10 % ( ), -

i i- |

'. | .

|

ii i |

p, 1/ - | p, 1/ -

i i |

i . | -

| .

i | -

' |

| Sr, ..,

Sr, .., | :

: |

 

(1,1Wic + Ww) ps

Sr = -----------------, (9)

ef pw

 

Wic - i | Wic -

| ,

, i- | 

i (i-), | (-), ..;

..; |

Ww - i - | Ww -

|

, i |

i ii - | ,

i, ..; | ..;

s - ii - | s - ,

, /3 ; | /3;

f - ii i | f -

; | ;

w - ii , - | w - , -

i 1 /3. | 1 /3.

|

ࠠ i |

itot, .. - | itot, .. -

i ' , |

i, ' |

. | .

- | :

: |

 

pf(Wtot - Ww)

itot = ii + iic = ---------------, (10)

pi(1 + wtot)

 

i | ࠠ

ꠠ | -

ii, .. - i- | ii, .. -

' - |

, i |

, ' | . -

 

 

 


 

. - | :

: |

ps(Wtot - Wm)

ii = ---------------------, (11)

pi + ps(Wtot - 0,1Ww)

 

ii - i | ii -

(- | - (-

), ..; | ), ..;

Wtot - ࠠ i | Wtot -

, ..; | , ..;

i - ii , - | i - , -

i 0,9 /3; | 0,9 /3;

f - ii - | f - -

, /3; | , /3;

Wm - i - | Wm - -

, i - | , -

, .. | , ..

|

i 蠠 - | 堠 -

i , ii | , -

ii i - | -

 ࠠ | -

ii , - | -

i . | , -

| .

|

i | -

- i i | - -

 ii |

, i | , -

ࠠ iࠠ i |

, - | ,

i | -

i . | -

| .

|

i ii | 堠

- i , | - -

ii i - | ,

, i i- | , -

i i | -

i i - | -

i. | .

|

i , | 堠 ,

ii - | -

- i - | -

, i - | ,

i ii | -

ii i | -

15 %. | 15 %.

|

, ii i- | , -

, - i - | , - -

, ⠠ | , ⠠

 

 

 


 

(i, - | 堠

, 頠 ⠠ i | (, ,

.i.) i - | ..)

. |

| .

|

, ii i | , -

ii-i , - | - , -

i , | ,

i | -

, | ,

. | .

|

i 蠠 - | - -

i , i- | ,

ࠠ | -

i | -

i, - | , .

. |

|

i - - | - -

i , i | ,

i | -

i i- | -

ii. | .

|

i i蠠 - | -

i i, i | , -

i  i- |

i . | .

|

i i蠠 - | -

i i , | ,

i i ii- | -

i | -

ii - |

. | .

|

- ii- | - -

i | -

i i, - | , -

i. | .

|

- i | -

i, | ,

i, i- | , -

i i - |

. | .

|

- - | -

. | .

|

- | 蠠 -

i - | 

i i |

. | .

 

 

 

 


 

|

(') | ()

|

в Ҳ  |

|

1 - | 1 -

i⠠ |

|

1.1 i- | 1.1

i R | R -

i |

ii i - | -

1. | 1.

 

1

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii -

| ,

⠠ |

| ,

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | > 120

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | 120 - 50

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii | 50 - 15

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | 15 - 5

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii | 5 - 3

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii | 3 - 1

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii | < 1

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

1.2 ii - | 1.2

d ii | d -

i 2. | 2.

 

 

2

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii d, /3

⠠ | d, /3

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | > 2.50

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

 


 

i i

2

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii d, /3

⠠ | d, /3

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | 2.50 - 2.10

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 2.10 - 1.20

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 1.20

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

1.3 ii - | 1.3 -

iii wr i- | wr -

i i - | 3.

3. |

 

3

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii iii

| wr, ..

⠠ |

| wr, ..

------------------------------------------------------------

ii頠 | 1

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii頠 | 1 - 0.90

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii頠 | 0.90 - 0.80

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii頠 | < 0.80

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

1.4 ࠠ ii | 1.4 -

'i i | 堠

ii i - | -

4. | 4.

 

4

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii 'i

| i sof, ..

⠠ |

| sof, ..

------------------------------------------------------------

'頠 | >= 0,75

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 


 

i i

4

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii 'i

| i sof, ..

⠠ |

| sof, ..

------------------------------------------------------------

'頠 | < 0,75

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

1.5 - | 1.5 -

i i i- | -

i i - | 5.

5. |

 

5

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii

| qsr, /

⠠ |

| qsr, /

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 0.01

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.01 - 1

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 1 - 10

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | > 10

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

1.6* - | 1.6* -

i ii- | -

i 6. | 6.

 

6

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii ii

| , /

⠠ |

| , /

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 0.005

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.005 - 0.30

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 


 

i i

6

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii ii

| , /

⠠ |

| , /

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.30 - 3

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 3 - 30

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | > 30

|

------------------------------------------------------------

 

* | *

- | -

i. | .

1.7 - | 1.7 -

i Dsal ii- | Dsal -

i 7. | 7.

 

7

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii

| Dsal, %

⠠ |

| Dsal, %

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | <= 2

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | > 2

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

1.8 | 1.8 -

ii- | -

i 8. | 8.

 

 

 


 

8

------------------------------------------------------------

i i | ࠠ |

| ࠠ |

------------------------------------------------------------

- | - | i,- | , i-

i | i | i | , '

-| - | , - | , -

| 堠 | - | , -

| | |

|-------------------------------|

| i | , - |

| - | iࠠ |

| 堠 | , - |

| | |

| | |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii | , | , -

堠 | - | , -

| i⠠ | , -

| , | , -

| - | , i.

| ⠠ | , -

| | , -

| | , -

| | , -

| | ,

| | .

------------------------------------------------------------

i | i,- | ,

堠 | ii | , -

| , - |

| - |

| |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

1.9 ࠠ 1.9 -

ii i -

9. 9.

 

 

9

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | t,

⠠ | t,

------------------------------------------------------------

() | >= 0

() |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 0

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

 


 

2 ՠ | 2 ՠ

Ҳ  |

|

2.1 | 2.1 -

i - |

i ii |

i i 10. | 10.

 

10

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i -| i -

| , - | , -

| d, | , %

| |

⠠ | - |

| , - | ,-

| d, | , %

| |

------------------------------------------------------------

i: | |

: | |

| |

- ( i i- | > 200 | > 50

i - - | |

) | |

- ( - | |

- ) | |

| |

- 頠 (蠠 | > 10 | > 50

- ) | |

- (蠠 | |

- ) | |

| |

- i ( | > 2 | > 50

- ') | |

- ( - | |

- ) | |

------------------------------------------------------------

i: | |

: | |

| |

- i頠 | > 2 | > 25

- 頠 | |

| |

- 頠 | > 0,50 | > 50

- 頠 | |

| |

- i | > 0,25 | > 50

- 蠠 | |

| |

- i頠 | > 0,10 | >= 75

- 頠 | |

| |

- 頠 | > 0,10 | < 75

- 頠 | |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

 


 

i. i | .

|

i i |

40 % - | 40 % -

i % i - | Π %

 蠠 i- | -

i - | -

- | -

- |

- |

. | . -

ࠠ | -

i - | 砠

 | 2 .

i 2 . |

|

2.2 - | 2.2 -

ii |

u i | u

i ii- |

: | :

- i頠 | - 頠

u <= 3; | u <= 3;

- i頠 | - 頠

u > 3. | u > 3.

|

2.3 - | 2.3 -

i I i | I 堠

ii i | -

11. | 11.

 

11

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i I

⠠ | I

------------------------------------------------------------

iꠠ | 1 - 7

|

------------------------------------------------------------

ꠠ | 7 - 17

ꠠ |

------------------------------------------------------------

ࠠ | 17

ࠠ |

------------------------------------------------------------

i. i- | . -

i | 젠

i, i | , 젠

i, ii, - | , , -

i i. | .

|

2.4 | 2.4 -

- | -

i I i | I 堠

ii i - | -

12. | 12.

 

 


 

12

------------------------------------------------------------

i | i | i i -

i⠠ | I𠠠 | (2-0,5 ),

| | %

- | | -

⠠ | I𠠠 |

| | (2-0,5 ),

| | %

------------------------------------------------------------

i: | |

: | |

| |

i頠 | 1 - 7 | >= 50

| |

| |

頠 | 1 - 7 | < 50

| |

------------------------------------------------------------

: | |

: | |

| |

i | 7 - 12 | >= 40

| |

| |

頠 | 7 - 12 | < 40

頠 | |

| |

i | 12 - 17 | >= 40

- | |

頠 | |

| |

頠 | 12 - 17 | < 40

| |

------------------------------------------------------------

: | |

: | |

| |

iࠠ | 17 - 27 | >= 40

| |

| |

ࠠ | 17 - 27 | < 40

| |

| |

ࠠ | > 27 |

| | -

| |

------------------------------------------------------------

2.5 i - | 2.5

i i- |

i i - | 13.

13. |

 

 


 

13

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i -

| i i 2 ,

| %

⠠ |

| 2 ,

| %

------------------------------------------------------------

i, , (- | 15 - 25

) |

, , (- |

) |

------------------------------------------------------------

i, , i | 25 - 50

(i) ii ('i) |

, , |

() (- |

) |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

2.6 - | 2.6 -

i IL i | IL 堠

ii i - | -

14. | 14.

 

 

14

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i IL

⠠ | IL

------------------------------------------------------------

i: |

: |

|

頠 | < 0

|

|

頠 | 0 - 1

|

|

頠 | > 1

|

------------------------------------------------------------

: |

: |

|

i | < 0

堠 |

|

ii | 0 - 0.25

堠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

 


 

i i

14

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i IL

⠠ | IL

------------------------------------------------------------

i | 0.25 - 0.50

堠 |

|

'i | 0.50 - 0.75

|

|

i | 0.75 - 1

堠 |

|

i | > 1

堠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

2.7 i - | 2.7 -

i - | -

i | 蠠

ii i - | -

15. | 15.

 

15

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i i

| , ..

⠠ | -

| 蠠 ,

| ..

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 0.04

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.04 - 0.08

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.08 - 0.12

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | > 0.12

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

2.8 i - | 2.8 -

i i Esl i| 蠠 Esl

ii i |

16. | 16.

 

 


 

16

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i i

| i Esl, ..

⠠ |

| Esl, ..

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | < 0,01

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | >= 0,01

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

2.9 ii - | 2.9 -

Sr - | Sr -

i i ii- | -

i 17. | 17.

 

17

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | ii

| Sr, ..

⠠ |

| Sr, ..

------------------------------------------------------------

| 0 - 0.50

|

------------------------------------------------------------

- | 0.50 - 0.80

|

- |

|

------------------------------------------------------------

i | 0.80 - 1

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

2.10 ࠠ ii | 2.10 -

i i ii- |

i 18. | 18.

 

 

 


 

18

------------------------------------------------------------

i ii | ii i

|

⠠ |-------------------------------------------

| i i- | i ii | i -

| i, - | | i

| i - | |

|  - | |

| i | |

| - | | -

| , - | |

| - | |

| - | |

| 蠠 | |

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | < 0.55 | < 0.60 | < 0.60

頠 | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

i- | 0.55 - 0.70 | 0.60 - 0.75 | 0.60 - 0.80

i | | |

頠 - | | |

蠠 | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | > 0.70 | > 0.75 | > 0.80

頠 | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

2.11 i- | 2.11 -

i ID i ii | ID -

i 19. | 19.

 

19

------------------------------------------------------------

i ii⠠ | i ii ID, ..

⠠ | ID, ..

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | 0 - 0.33

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | 0.33 - 0.66

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | 0.66 - 1

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

2.12 ࠠ ii | 2.12 

iii wr - | wr -

i 蠠 ii |

i 20. | 20.

 

 


 

20

------------------------------------------------------------

i䠠 | ii

i⠠ | iii wr, ..

|

| wr, ..

------------------------------------------------------------

ii頠 | 0 - 0.50

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii頠 | 0.50 - 0.75

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii頠 | 0.75 - 1

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

2.13 ࠠ ii | 2.13 

i fr - | fr -

i 蠠 ii |

i 21. | 21.

 

21

------------------------------------------------------------

i䠠 | ii

i⠠ | i fr, ..

|

| fr, ..

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | < 0.10

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.10 - 0.20

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii | 0.20 - 0.30

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

i頠 | 0.30 - 0.40

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

ii | > 0.40

蠠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

2.14 i i - 2.14 -

i Ir i 

i ii Ir -

i 22 22.

 

 


 

22

-----------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ |i i i -

⠠ | Ir, ..

| -

| Ir, ..

|---------------------------------

| i | i

| |

-----------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.50 - 0.40 | -

頠 | |

-----------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.40 - 0.25 | -

頠 | |

-----------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.25 - 0.10 | -

頠 | |

-----------------------------------------------------------------

i i | 0.10 - 0.05 | 0.10 - 0.03

| |

-----------------------------------------------------------------

 

2.15 i젠 i젠 2.15 -

i I - Ir

i ii i -

23. 23.

 

23

-----------------------------------------------------------------

i i | i i i

| Ir, ..

|

頠 | Ir, ..

-----------------------------------------------------------------

iࠠ | 0.10 - 0.30

|

-----------------------------------------------------------------

iࠠ | 0.30 - 0.50

|

-----------------------------------------------------------------

iࠠ | > 0.50

|

-----------------------------------------------------------------

 

2.16 2.16

Ddp ii i Ddp

24. 24.

 


 

24

-----------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i Ddp, %

⠠ | Dd, %

-----------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 20

|

頠 | 20 - 45

|

頠 | > 45

|

-----------------------------------------------------------------

2.17 i 2.17 蠠

Das ii i Das

25. 25.

25

25

-----------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i i Das, ..

⠠ | Das, ..

-----------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 20

頠 |

頠 | >= 20

頠 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------

2.18 i 2.18

Dsal ii i- Dsal -

26. 26.

26

-----------------------------------------------------------------

i i| i i i Dsal, %

| Dsal, %

-----------------------------------------------------------------

|-|-|i- |

|ꠠ | | |

|-|- |- |-------------------------------

|ꠠ || |i i- |i - |i -

| | | | -| |

| | | | | i |i

| | | |40 % ࠠ | |i

| | | |i堠 | % ࠠ | %

| | | | |i堠 |i

| | | |||

| | | | |-|-

| | | |-| |

| | | | 40 % | |

| | | |堠 |30 % -|30 % -

| | | | |堠 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 10 |< 5 |< 3 | < 3 | < 10 | < 5

頠 | | | | | |

-----------------------------------------------------------------

|10-15 |5-8 |3-7 | - | - | -

| | | | | |

-----------------------------------------------------------------

 


 

i i

26

------------------------------------------------------------

i | i i i Dsal, %

i | Dsal, %

- |--------------------------------------------------

| - | i- | i |

| ꠠ | ꠠ | |

| | | |------------------------

| - | - | |i | i | i

| ꠠ | | |i- | - | -

| | | | | |

| | | |- | - | -

| | | | | i | i

| | | |40% | - | i-

| | | |i | | %

| | | | | % |

| | | | | i | i

| | | |- | - | -

| | | | | |

| | | |- | - | -

| | | | | |

| | | |- | |

| | | | | - |

| | | |40 % | | 30%

| | | | | 30% |

| | | | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

- | 15-20 | 8-12 | 7-10 | - | - | -

- | | | | | |

頠 | | | | | |

- | | | | | |

- | | | | | |

蠠 | | | | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

- | 20-25 | 12-15 | 10-15 | - | - | -

- | | | | | |

頠 | | | | | |

- | | | | | |

- | | | | | |

| | | | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

i- | >25 | >15 | >15 | - | - | -

- | | | | | |

頠 | | | | | |

- | | | | | |

- | | | | | |

頠 | | | | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

2.19 i - | 2.19 

i Efh | Efh

ii i | -

27. | 27.

 

 


 

27

------------------------------------------------------------

i i | i | i

| - |

| i - |

| Efh,|

| .. |

| - |

⠠ | |

| - |

| - |

| Efh, |

| .. |

------------------------------------------------------------

 | | i IL <= 0.

頠 | | i ii, i

| |  i, i

| | ii ࠠ i

| | Sr<=0,6, i ii

| | i, i

| | 15 % ii-

| | i 0,05 ( i

| | Sr). i

| | 10%

| < 0,01 |

蠠 | | IL <= 0.

頠 | | ,

| | 頠 ,

| | 堠 蠠 堠

| | Sr<=0,6,

| | ,

| | 15 %

| | 0,05 ( -

| | Sr).

| | 10%

------------------------------------------------------------

| | i 0 < IL <= 0,25.

| | i i ii

| | 0,6 < Sr <= 0,8.

| | i

| | (, i i

| | ) i 10 30%

| |

| 0,01-0,035|

| | 0 < IL <= 0,25.

| |

| | 0,6 < Sr <= 0,8.

| | -

| | (,

| | ) 10 30%

| |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

 


 

i i

27

------------------------------------------------------------

i i | i | i

| - |

| i - |

| Efh,|

| .. |

| - |

⠠ | |

| - |

| - |

| Efh, |

| .. |

------------------------------------------------------------

- | | i 0,25 <IL<= 0,50.

頠 | | i i ii

| | 0,8 < Sr <= 0,95.

| | i

| | (, i

| | i), i i Π %

| |

| 0,035-0,07|

| | 0,25<IL<=0,50.

| |

| | 0,8 < Sr <= 0,95.

| | -

| | (, -

| | ), 30 %

| |

------------------------------------------------------------

| | i IL > 0,50.

ࠠ i | | i i ii

i頠 | | Sr > 0,95

| >0,07 |

| | IL > 0,50.

- | |

頠 | | Sr > 0,95

------------------------------------------------------------

 

2.20 t | 2.20 t

ii i |

28. | 28.

 

28

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | t, .

⠠ | t, .

------------------------------------------------------------

() | >= 0

() |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 0

頠 |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

 


 

3 Ѡ ՠ | 3 Ѡ ՠ

Ҳ  |

|

3.1 i | 3.1 蠠

ꠠ | -

ii ii- | ii

i 29. | 29.

 

29

------------------------------------------------------------

i i | i

| ii, ..

⠠ |

| ii, ..

|----------------------------------------

| i i- | i

| i 蠠 |

| - |

| |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | < 0.01 | < 0.20

蠠 | |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.01 - 0.05 | 0.20 - 0.40

頠 | |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | > 0.05 | 0.40 - 0.60

頠 | |

------------------------------------------------------------

- | - | 0.60 - 0.90

頠 | |

- | |

頠 | |

------------------------------------------------------------

3.2 ࠠ - | 3.2 --

ii蠠 | 젠 젠

ii i | -

30. | 30.

 

 

 


 

30

------------------------------------------------------------

i⠠ | i i

⠠ |

|-------------------------------------------

| - | - |

| (f<=0,1 | 頠 | t<0 .

| -1) | (f>0,1-1)|

| t < h,.| t,. |

| - | - | -

| (f<=0,1 | 頠 |

| -1) | (f>0,1-1)| t<0 .

| t < h,.| t,. |

------------------------------------------------------------

i - | | |

i- | | |

- | | |

i⠠ | Th = 0 | - | -

- | | |

蠠 - | | |

- | | |

⠠ | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

| h = 0 | |

򠠠 | | |

- | | |

򠠠 | | |

-------------------------------| |

i i- | | |

, | | h < t < Tbf |

- | | |

i | h = -0,1 | 蠠 |

- | | |

, | | Sr < 0,8 |

頠 - | | |

蠠 | | |

-------------------------------| |

i i | | | Sr<=0,15

頠 | h = -0,3 | |

| | |

頠 | | |

----------------------------------------------|

- | i- | h = -0,6 | |

頠 | ꠠ | | |

| | | |

- |-----------------------| |

頠 | - | h = -1,0 | h < t < Tbf |

| ꠠ | | |

| - | | |

| ꠠ | | |

|-----------------------| |

| | h = -1,5 | |

| | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 


 

i i

30

------------------------------------------------------------

i⠠ | i i

⠠ |

|-------------------------------------------

| - | - |

| (f<=0,1 | 頠 | t<0 .

| -1) | (f>0,1-1)|

| t < h,.| t,.|

| - | - | -

| (f<=0,1 | 頠 |

| -1) | (f>0,1-1)| t<0 .

| t < h,.| t,.|

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | h'=-7(Ir+Th)| h' < t < Tbf| -

򠠠 | | |

頠 | | |

򠠠 | | |

------------------------------------------------------------

| - | t < 0 | -

| | |

------------------------------------------------------------

i. h - - | . h - -

| -

i i, |

h' - - | , h' - -

i. | .

 

3.3 - | 3.3 -

i Dsal ( | Dsal (

- NaCl, | - NaCl, Na SO -

Na SO i 90%) | 2 4

2 4 | 90%)

ii i - | 31.

31. |

 

 

31

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i ,

| %

⠠ |

| , %

|---------------------------------------

| iꠠ |

| ꠠ |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.05 - 0.10 | 0.20 - 0.50

蠠 | |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | 0.10 - 0.20 | 0.50 - 1.00

頠 | |

------------------------------------------------------------

 


i i

31

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i ,

| %

⠠ |

| , %

|---------------------------------------

| iꠠ |

| ꠠ |

------------------------------------------------------------

頠 | > 20 | > 1.00

頠 | |

------------------------------------------------------------

 

3.4 i - | 3.4 -

ii | -

i 32. | 32.

 

32

------------------------------------------------------------

i⠠ | i

⠠ |

------------------------------------------------------------

i i⠠ | i, , -

|

⠠ | , , -

|

------------------------------------------------------------

i i - |

i⠠ |

- |

⠠ |

------------------------------------------------------------

i 蠠 |

| , , i,

-----------------------------|

i -i | , , -

i⠠ | ,

- |

⠠ |

------------------------------------------------------------

i i i | i, , i-

- | ,

⠠ | , , -

| ,

------------------------------------------------------------

i 蠠 | , i,

| , ,

------------------------------------------------------------

i蠠 | , , i,

蠠 |

| , , -

| ,

------------------------------------------------------------

 


 

ʠ Ѡ 39 Ӡ ʠ Ѡ 39

 

 

i : , | : ,

ii, i-- | , --

ii , - | , -

, i | ,

: ֻ ( . , . . , 2; /. 249-34-04 )