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==================================================================
  
 в Ͳ  
 вͲ 
  òβֲͲ  
    
   .2.7-83-99  2678-94
 ( 2678-94)
   ,|  -
    |   
 蠠 |   -
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  1999
  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94)|
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 1 ɠ | 1 
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  ̳ 񳿠 |   
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  |䠠 |  |
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 ࠠ |䠠 | ࠠ |
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 |
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94)
 3 ɠ |3   2678-87
 |
    117 |
  11.05.99 . |
    2678-87 |
 |
 3   2678-87 |
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   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94)
 ̲Ҡ 
==================================================================
1   ....... 1 |1   ........ 1
 |
2   ...... 3 |2   ........ 3
 |
3   ....... 5 |3   .......... 5
 |
3.1   ......... 5 |3.1   ........ 5
 |
3.2   |3.2    .. 6
  ................. 5 |
 |
3.3   |3.3  
    ........ 7 |    ...... 7
 |
3.4   |3.4  
   , |   ,
  ,  |  ,
 ,  |  ,
    |  
   .. 8 |   -
 |   .......... 8
 |
3.5   - |3.5  
   ...... 13 | 
 |  ........... 13
 |
3.6   - |3.6  
   ...... 15 | 
 |  ........... 15
 |
3.7  󠠠 |3.7  
  .............. 16 | .................. 16
 |
3.8  򳠠 |3.8  
    .............. 16 |    ............... 16
 |
3.9   .... 17 |3.9   .... 17
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3.10  䠠 |3.10  
  ............ 19 |  ............ 19
 |
3.11  - |3.11  -
 ................ 21 |  ........ 21
 |
3.12  |3.12  -
  ......... 24 |  .............. 24
 |
3.13  蠠 |3.13  
   - |  
   ࠠ |  
    ... 25 |     ..25
 |
3.14   蠠 |3.14   
   ......... 26 |   ......... 26
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94)
3.15  蠠 |3.15  
   ࠠ |   
   ..... 27 |  .. 27
 |
3.16  蠠 |3.16  
   蠠 |   
    - |    -
    |    
     |  
  ................. 33 |  ................. 33
 |
3.17   蠠 |3.17   
  頠 |  
  .............. 35 |  .............. 35
 |
3.18  蠠 |3.18  
 ',    | ,   
   󠠠 |   
 '  ࠠ |   
 頠 | 
  ................. 36 |  ................. 36
 |
3.19  蠠 |3.19  
 '  蠠 |   
  ............ 39 |  ................ 39
 |
3.20  蠠 |3.20  
 '  蠠 |   
 ' ' |  
   - |  
  ................. 41 |  ............. 41
 |
3.21    |3.21  
   |  
  ................. 42 |   ...... 42
 |
3.22   1 2 |3.22   1 2
  .............. 44 | .............. 44
 |
 3.23   |3.23  
    |  
' ....................44 |  ...................44
 |
 3.24   |3.24  
'    |  
' ....................45 |  ...................45
 |
3.25  蠠 |3.25  
 ......................45 | ......................45
 |
3.26   |3.26  
   |  
 ....................46 | ....................46
 |
3.27  - |3.27  
  ................48 | ......................48
 |
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94)
3.28   |3.28  
  ..................49 |  .................49
 |
3.29  蠠 |3.29  
 .................49 | .....................49
 |
3.30   ....49 |3.30   ...49
 |
3.31   |3.31  
  .....49 |  ........49
 |
3.32  ࠠ |3.32  
 .................52 | ....................52
 |
  | 
 |
     |     
     |    
  -ꠠ | -
  1 .................... 52 |  1 .....................52
 |
 |
  | 
 |
     |     
     |    
  -ꠠ | -
  2 .....................52 |  2 .....................52
 |
   | 
 |
     |    
    ............53 |    ...........53
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.1
   Ƞ  
==================================================================
  
   
  
  
  
   堠   .2.7-83-99
  堠 ( 2678-94)
  
 ldng mtls
 Rolled fing d waterf materials
 thods f tstng
------------------------------------------------------------------
   1999-10-01   1996-01-01
 ---------- -------------------------
 |
 |
 1  ߠ | 1  
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________________________________________________________________
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.2
-    - |-   
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   ; |  ;
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-    ; |-    ;
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   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.3
     |   
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 2 Ͳ ߠ | 2  
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 12.1.044-89 | .   
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 166-89 | .  
------------------------------------------------------------------
 262-79 | .   
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 263-75 | .    
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 427-75 |   .
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 2551-75 |     -
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 |   
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 3749-77 |   90 .
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 5789-78 | .  
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 6613-86 |     
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 7502-89 |   .
 |  
-----------------------------------------------------------------
 9147-80 |    
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-----------------------------------------------------------------
 9548-74 |   .
 |  
-----------------------------------------------------------------
 9572-77 |  .  
-----------------------------------------------------------------
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.4
 9880-76 |    .
 |  
-----------------------------------------------------------------
 9941-81 |   -  -
 |    
-----------------------------------------------------------------
 9976-83 |  .
 |  
----------------------------------------------------------------
 10704-91 |    .
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------------------------------------------------------------------
 11358-89 |     
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 |  
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 11506-73 |  .  
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 11507-78 |  .  
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 19265-73 |      .
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 19728.17-74 |   .  
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 19908-90 | , , , , ,
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 20015-88 | .  
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 20739-75 |  .  
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 21235-75 |    .
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-----------------------------------------------------------------
 21241-89 |  .  
 |    
-----------------------------------------------------------------
 25336-82 |    
 | .
 | ,    
-----------------------------------------------------------------
 26627-85 |     -
 | .  
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.5
   ܠ |   
 |
 3.1  蠠 | 3.1  
 |
 3.1.1    - | 3.1.1    -
    - |    -
   Ҡ |    
26627. |26627.
 |
 3.1.2   - | 3.1.2   -
   - |   
    10 䠠 |   10   -
  (20 +- 5) |  (20 +- 5) .
.. |.
 |
 3.1.3 ³  , | 3.1.3   ,
  蠠  |  
   , |   ,  -
    1   |   1   
     |    
    |    
  750    |750    
   - | 蠠 -
     |    450  
450    - |  ,
 , -- |-  
   . |.
 |
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   |   
     |    (50 +
 (50 +- 5). |-5).
 |
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     - |     25 
 25      - |    -  -
 . |.
 |
    |  䠠 
 蠠  |   -
   2   |   2   -
 (20 +- 5) .. | (20 +- 5) ..
 |
 ϳ   - |    -
   - |   ,
,    , |   , -
    |    (20
(20 +- 5) .. |+-5) ..
 |
   .2.7-83-99 (Ҡ 2678-94) C.6
 3.1.4   | 3.1.4  
()    - |()    -
   105-110 |   105-110
..   - |..   -
 ,  | , -
      - |     30
    ,|    
   0,04 . |,   
 |0,04 .
 |
 3.1.5   - | 3.1.5   -
,  ຠ  , |,   ,
   -  |   - 
   |  -
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  ;   |  ;   -
򳿠 -   | - 堠 
   |  
   . |   .
 |
 3.2   | 3.2   
 󠠠 |
 |
 3.2.1   - | 3.2.1   
 ⠠  |   
    |  2551.
2551. |
 |
 3.2.2 г ⠠ | 3.2.2   -
   |⠠ 򠠠 
젠 90 ., 2-  | 90 ., 2- 
,  = 1000    |,  = 1000   
3749  젠  |3749   
 ,  | , -
󺠠    |   
. |.
 |
 3.2.3 г - | 3.2.3  -
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     |    -
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 10. |10 .
 |
 ʳ    |    
  15   |  15   
 . |.
 |
 3.2.4    | 3.2.4  ⠠ 
 ()  | ()  
    |   
 427    |427    -
,    |,   
  . | .
   .2.7-83-99 (Ҡ 2678-94) C.7
 3.3   | 3.3 堠 
    |  
 |
 3.3.1 ˳  (- | 3.3.1   (-
  )  - |  )  
    - |   
   Ҡ 427  |   427  -
  2-  |  2-  -
   7502   |  Ҡ 7502  
  - |  -
,     |,   
 ,  - | ,  
-   - |-   -
     |     10
10     0,01 젠 |    0,01  
  11358   - | 11358   -
,     |,    -
 . | .
 |
     |    
    - |    ,
,   -    |  -    -
 1    . | 1    .
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    0,1 |    0,1
젠 ( 蠠  | (   )
)   1  (  |  1  (  
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 |
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    |   -
. |.
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(10050) +-1   -|(10050) +- 1   -
 . | .
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    |    0,01
0.01 . |.
 |
 3.3.2    | 3.3.2   -
 ࠠ  |    -
 蠠   |    (3.3.1).
(3.3.1). |
 |
    0,1 |    0,1
2. |2.
 |
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.8
 3.4   | 3.4  
  ,  |  , 
,  , |,  ,
   |   -
  - |  -
 |
 |
 3.4.1    | 3.4.1   
  | 
 |
    - |    -
,  : |, :
 |
 -    | -    -
ࠠ ⠠  |   
 0-1000  (0-100 ) |0-1000  (0-100 )   -
     2 |   2  (0,2 );
(0,2 ); |
 |
 -    | -   -
  (- |   (-
)    |)    +-1%
+- 1% (   |(   -
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 |
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   (50 |   (50
+- 5) /. |+- 5) /.
 |
    - |    -
,  : |, :
 |
 -    | -    -
ࠠ ⠠  |   
 0-100  (0-10 )  |0-100  (0-10 )   -
    0,05 ͠ |   0,05  (0,005
(0,005 ); |);
 |
 -    | -   -
  (- |蠠  
)    |()    +-
+- 1% (  - |1% (  
 ,  ); |,  );
 |
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(500 +- 50) /. |+- 50) /.
 |
   ,  |   , -
     |   
 ,  |  , -
   쳠  |    -
  +- 2 %. |    +- 2%.
 |
 ࠠ 򳠠 , |   , -
   , |   ,
   - |   -
   - |  
   蠠 |   
 +- 5 %. |+- 5 %.
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.9
   - |   -
     10  |     10
   0,01    |    0,01  
11358   ,  | 11358   -
󺠠    |,    -
. | .
 |
 ˳    |   
427  頠  | 427   -
 ,  | 頠 ,
󺠠    |   
. |.
 |
 3.4.2    | 3.4.2   
  | 
 |
 3.4.2.1  - | 3.4.2.1  
,     | 蠠 
,   |   -
-  |    -
 ࠠ  - |-  (22050)
-  (22050) |+,- 1 ,   -
+- 1 ,   - | .
 . |
 |
 3.4.2.2  - | 3.4.2.2  -
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 3.4.2.3   蠠 | 3.4.2.3    -
-  - |-  -
    1 |    1 
   1  2. |  1  2.
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.10
  
 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------
| 󠠠 |  -蠠 |
| ࠠ |  -蠠 |
| |--------------------------------------|
| |  1 |  2 |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------|
|  , | | |
| ࠠ L1 | 250 +- 1 | 115 +- 1 |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------|
|  蠠 | | |
|     | 60 +- 1 | 25 +- 1 |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------|
|  () | | |
|蠠 | | |
|  () | | |
|蠠 L2 | 50 +- 1 | 6 +- 0,4|
|-----------------------------------------------------------------|
|  () | | |
|蠠 | | |
|  () | | |
|蠠 L2 | 116 +- 1 | 33 +- 1 |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------|
| 頠 | | |
| 頠 R | 75 +- 1 | 25 +- 1 |
|-----------------------------------------------------------------|
| 頠 | | |
| 頠 r | - | 14 +- 1 |
-------------------------------------------------------------------
 3.4.2.4 ³  - | 3.4.2.4   -
    - |     -
     |     0,025
0,025 . |.
 |
 г    |   
    |   
     |    
 -  1  |  -  1
0,2 ,    2 -  | 0,2 ,    2 - -
0,05 . | 0,05 .
 |
 󠠠 󠠠 (1) |   (1) -
  , |  , -
  ,   | ,  
   ,  . |   ,  -
6 |.
    (1) |    (1)
  (130 +- 1) , | - (130 +-1)
 -  1 - (100 |,  -  1 -
+- 1) ,   - |(100 +- 1) ,   --
 2 - (25,0 +- 0,5) . |  2 - (25,0 +- 0,5).
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.11
 3.4.2.5   | 3.4.2.5  
    |   
   - |   -
  ,  |  , -
(L1) 栠 蠠  - | (L1)    -
-  -  |-  -
1 - (150 +- 1) ,  - | 1 - (150 +- 1) ,  -
-  2 - (50 +- 1) .|-  2 - (50 +- 1)
 |.
 |
 ̳    |    
   - |  
. |.
 |
 3.4.2.6  -- | 3.4.2.6  --
     |     
  .   | .  
   |   -
 ⠠  |   -
. |.
 |
     |    
-  - |-  -
   蠠 |   
    . |    .
 |
 |
 3.4.3 ꠠ  | 3.4.3 ꠠ 
 |
 |
 3.4.3.1    | 3.4.3.1   
    - |    -
  ,  |  , 
    - |    -
     |    
      |    
.   | . -
  , |   -
󠠠 󠠠 򳠠  | ,   -
    |   
 . |   .
 |
 3.4.3.2   | 3.4.3.2   -
 ,  | ,  -
,  蠠  |,    -
   |  
      |    -
    |     -
  (L2).   |   (L2). 
  蠠  |    -
  .  |   .
    - |     -
      |     -
   - |    -
    - |    -
. |.
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.12
 3.4.3.3   | 3.4.3.3   -
  - |  -
   , |   ,
   , |   -
   |,   
   (120+-2)  |   (120 +-2) 
 󠠠  |   -
,  󺠠  |,   -
    |    (
( )    |)    
  (L). | (L).
 |
 3.4.4 ࠠ  | 3.4.4   -
  | 
 |
 3.4.4.1   | 3.4.4.1  
( ), 󠠠  |(  ),   (-
 𠠠 | 
(-   |-   -
), - - |), - 
   | 
 
 p
  = ------ , ( 1 )
 𠠠 b h
 
 Р 
  -  ,  (); |  -  ,
 |  ();
 |
 -  -, | -  -,
  (); |  ();
 |
h -   蠠 |h -   
  -蠠 |  -  
   ,  (). | ,  ().
 |
    0,1 |    0,1
 (0,01 /2). |  (0,01 /2).
 |
 3.4.4.2 󠠠  | 3.4 4.2  
( ), 󠠠  |( ),   (-
  
(-   |-   -
), - - |), - 
   | 
 
 
  = ------ , ( 2 )
  b h
 
 к -  ࠠ | к -   
    |  ,  ();
 (); |
 -  -, | -  -,
  (); |  ();
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.13
h -   蠠 |h -   
  -   |  -  
 ,  (). | ,  ().
 |
    0.1 |   0.1 
 (0,01 /2). |(0,01 /2).
 |
 3.4.4.3 ³  | 3.4.4.3  -
( ),  ,   | (),  , -
 |  
 L - L
 2 1
  = -----------  100, ( 3 )
 L
 1
 L -   - | L -   -
 1 | 1
  , ; | , ;
 |
 |
 L -     |L -   -
 2    - | 2
   ,.|     -
 |  , .
 |
    1%.|   1 %.
 |
 3.4.4.4 ³  | 3.4.4.4  -
 ( ),  , |  ()>  -
   |,   
 |
 l - l | l - l
 砠 | 
  = ----------  100, ( 4 ) |  = ----------  100, ( 4 )
 렠 l | 򠠠 l
 |
 L - ࠠ  | l-   
   , |  , ;
; |
 |
l -   蠠 |L -   
 砠 | 
 (  젠 | (  
  ), |  ),
. |.
 |
    1 %. |    1 %.
 |
 3.5   - | 3.5  -
  |  
 |
 3.5.1    | 3.5.1   -
 | 
 |
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.14
 頠  |   
 ,  |,  
     |   
3. |3.
    |   
 : | :
 |
-   - |-   
  (100 +- 10)   | (100 +- 10)   (250 +-10) ;
 (250 +- 10) ; |
 |
-   - |-   -
   , - |    ,
   ; |   ;
 |
-   ࠠ |-   
   4 . |   4 .
 |
    |   
(10,0+-0,1). |(10,0 +- 0,1) .
 ϳ    |    
200   砠 |200    -
'  25 /3 |  25 /3 
 (15015020) +- 1 . |(15015020) +- 1 .
 |
 3.5.2    | 3.5.2   
  | 
 3.5.2.1  - | 3.5.2.1  
     |ࠠ   
(150150) +- 1 . |(150150) +- 1 .
 |
 3.5.2.2 ࠠ  | 3.5.2.2   -
  ,  |  , -
      |     
   . |    -
     |.   頠 
 .    |  . 
    |    
  ,  - |   ,
  .  |   .
   |    -
 . | .
 |
 3.5.3 ꠠ  | 3.5.3 ꠠ 
. |.
  , |  , 
     - | Ġ   
 ,   - |,     
   .  - |.   
    - |    (24,0
 (24,0 +- 0,2) ,  |+- 0,2) ,   -
 , - |,    -
    - |堠 , 
,   , | ,  
    - |    -
   |  3.11.
 3.11. |
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.15
 3.5.4 ࠠ  | 3.5.4   -
  | 
 ,   - |   
 ,    |,    
堠 堠 0,001 ࠠ (0,01 | 0.001  (0,01 /2) 
/2)    24 |   24    -
     '- |   .
 . |
 |
 3.6   | 3.6  -
  |  
 |
 3.6.1    | 3.6.1   
  | 
 |
 ,   - | ,  
   4,   |   4,  
,     |,  
㳺 (9,0 +-0,1)  ( |  (9,0 +- 0,1)  (
   ,  |   , 
 (2,00 +- 0,03) ), |(2,00 +- 0,03) ), 
    - |  蠠 
 (L)   (45,9 |(L)   (45,9 +
+- 0,1) . |-0,1)  .
 ϳ    |    
200  󠠠  |200    -
'  25 /3 |  25 /3 
 (15015020) +- 1 . |(15015020) +- 1 .
 |
 г. |.
 |
 3.6.2    | 3.6.2   
  | 
 |
 3.6.2.1  - | 3.6.2.1  
     |ࠠ   
(150150) +- 1 . |(150150) +- 1 .
 |
 3.6.2.2 ϳ,  | 3.6.2.2 , 
      |     
   , |   ,
   - |   -
      |     -
   . |   -
Ӡ  ࠠ  | .    -
, 蠠  | , -
  . |   -
 | .
 |
 3.6.3 ꠠ  | 3.6.3 ꠠ 
 ꠠ  |   
   - |    -
  .  |.    -
   . - | .  
    |  
  3.11. | 3.11.
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.16
 3.6.4 ࠠ  | 3.6.4   -
  | 
 ,   - |   
 ,    |,    
堠 堠 0,001 ࠠ (0,01 | 0,001  (0,01 / ) 
/2)  24    |   24    -
  ' . |   .
 |
 3.7   - | 3.7  -
 | 
     
    |  -
262. |   262.
 |
 3.8    | 3.8  
  |  
 |
 3.8.1    | 3.8.1   
  | 
 |
    263. |    263.
   - |   -
     10 |     10
    0,01   |    0,01  
 11358   , | 11358   -
     |,    -
. | .
 |
 . | .
 г. | .
 |
 3.8.2    | 3.8.2   
  | 
 |
 3.8.2.1  - | 3.8.2.1  
    (5555) |   (5555)+-1
+-1      6|     6 .
. |
 |
 3.8.2.2  蠠 | 3.8.2.2  
(5555)+-1    |(5555) +- 1    -
   , |   
    - |,    
,  ,  |   
   6 . |  6 .
 ʳ ,  |  , -
   - |   ,
,      |      -
   . |  .
 |
 3.8.2.3   | 3.8.2.3  
   ,  |   , -
      |    
5 ,   䠠  |  5 ,   
     |    
 15 . г - |  15 .  -
     |   
    |    
 ,  - |  .
. |
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.17
 3.8.3 ꠠ  | 3.8.3 ꠠ 
 |
 |
 3.8.3.1    | 3.8.3.1  
    |    -
.   | .  -
      |    -
   |    
,    - | ,   -
     |   -
. |   -
 |.
 |
   - |   .
. |
 |
 3.8.3.2 ³ꠠ  | 3.8.3.2  
  3-4    |   3-4  
   - |   
. |.
 |
 3.8.3.3   | 3.8.3.3  
   (   |   (  -
 ) , |  ) ,
     |   
  10 . |   10 .
 |
 3.8.4 ࠠ  | 3.8.4   -
  | 
 |
       |      
     |   
   - |    -
堠 ⠠  |   -
,    |,   
. |.
 |
 3.9  򳠠 | 3.9  
 |
 3.9.1    | 3.9.1   
  | 
 |
 ࠠ ,  |  , -
   - |   -
. |.
 |
   (- |   (
 5),    |5),  砠 
,    |,   -
󠠠  |   -
,  ຠ  |,    
 蠠  |  . 
 ..    |      -
     - |  .
 . |
 Ӡ  .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.18
 . | .
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
  . |  .
 |
   . |   .
 |
     |   
. | .
 |
 3.9.2    | 3.9.2   
  | 
 |
 3.9.2.1  - | 3.9.2.1  
 ࠠ   |ࠠ   
 (15020) +- 1 , |(15020) +- 1 ,  
   - | .
. |
 |
 3.9.2.2   | 3.9.2.2 䠠 
   - | 頠 
     - |     -
,    |,   
     |  
  ,  |    -
   (10 +- 0,5) . |,     (10
ϳ    |+-0,5) .   -
 0 .    |  0 .  -
  ,    |    ,   -
 -   - |  -  -
     |   
 (20,0 +- 0,5) . |   (20,0 +-
  , |0,5) . ⠠ 
    |,    -
     - |     -
 . |  .
 |
 3.9.3 ꠠ  | 3.9.3 ꠠ 
 |
 |
 3.9.3.1    | 3.9.3.1   -
,    - |   -
   - |     -
     |   
   ,   |    -
   0,25 - |,    
 . ³   | 0,25  . -
  (5 +- 1)  |    
蠠   | (5 +- 1)   -
     |    -
 (  -- |   
 ). |(  -
 |).
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.19
 3.9.3.2   | 3.9.3.2  -
   - |   -
    |   
    |   
.     | .   
   - |   -
      |     
  15 . |   15 .
 |
 3.9.4 ࠠ  | 3.9.4   -
  | 
 |
 ,   - |   
 ,    |,    
頠  ( | (  - 
 -   ') | )   -
 '  ( | (  ) 
 ')   |   -
'  . |.
 |
 3.10  - | 3.10  -
 |
 |
 3.10.1   | 3.10.1   
   | 
 |
    - |    -
    0,02 . |   
 |0,02 .
 |
   , |   -
   - |,  
  200 .. |  200 ..
 |
 ࠠ 砠  | ࠠ  
   14919. |   14919.
 |
    Ҡ  |     
   21241. |   21241.
 |
 |
 ٳ. | .
 |
   (1,0 +- |   (1,0 +- 0,1)
0,1) . |.
 |
 . | .
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
    9548. |    9548.
 |
   . |   .
 |
    |   -
  120250 . |   120250 .
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.20
     |   
. | .
 |
 3.10.2   | 3.10.2   
   | 
 |
 3.10.2.1  | 3.10.2.1  -
   - |    -
    , |   ,  -
    |    -
   -  |  -   -
蠠   |  (100100) +- 1 .
(100100) +- 1 . |
 |
 3.10.2.2  - | 3.10.2.2  
     |    -
   , |   ,
頠 렠 (, |  (,
 )   |  ..)  
  . |  .
 |
 3.10.2.3    | 3.10.2.3   
  |  
   |   -
 . |.
 |
      |     
    - |    -
   (- |   (-
   - |   )
)    |    -
   , |  ,  
ᠠ ࠠ  , | , 
  ,  '- | ,   .
 .    |  ࠠ 
  砠  |    -
 蠠 , | ,   -
     |    -
 ,    ( |,    (30+-1)
+1-)  . | .
 |
 3.10.2.4   | 3.10.2.4  
󠠠  |   -
   |    -
 ࠠ 頠  |    -
    |  3-5   , -
3-5   ,   |頠   160-180
 160-180 .,  |.,   .
 . |
 |
 2.10.3   | 2.10.3  
. |.
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.21
 ϳ  - | 頠 
 (m ),     1 | (m ),   -
 1 | 1
    ,  - |  1     ,
    , - |     -
    |,  
   |   -
30-60    (m ).  |   30-60   -
 2 |
     | (m ).   
 | 2
 ,     |    ,
    50   - |      
  ,   | 50     -
    - | ,   
. ϳ    |   .
 ,    |    
(m ). |,  蠠 
 3 |(m ).
 | 3
     - |    
      - |    
  60 . |   60 .
 |
 3.10.4 ࠠ  | 3.10.4 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
  (W), 󠠠 |  (W),  -
,    |,    
  |
 |
 m - m
 3 2
 W = ------------  100, ( 5 )
 m
 1
 m -   , ; | m -   , ;
 1 | 1
m -    - |m -    -
 2 | 2
   , |   , ;
. |
m -     |m -    -
 3   , . | 3
 |   , .
 |
    0,1 |    0,1
%. |%.
 |
 3.11  - | 3.11  -
򳠠 |
 |
 3.11.1   | 3.11.1   
   | 
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.22
 ,   - | ,  
   6,   |   6,  -
 ,   |  , -
   - |   -
   |   -
  0,3  (3 /2). |   0,3 
 |( /2).
    Ҡ 9941 |      9941
  Ҡ 10704  |  Ҡ 10704 
100-110 ,  1,5-2,5 |100-110 ,  1,5-2,5 ,
,    120   |   120   
    |    
    |   
   100   - | 100   
   , |  , -
頠 󺠠  |  
   |  0,001
0,001  (0,01 /2). | (0,01 /2).
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
 . | .
 |
    |   -
(150150) +- 1. | (150150) +- 1 .
 |
    |   -
    150150 . |     150150
 |.
 |
 ϳ, ࠠ  | ,  -
   - |   -
   . |   .
 |
  . |  .
 |
  頠 ࠠ  |     9548.
9548. |
 |
 3.11.2   | 3.11.2   
   | 
 |
 3.11.2.1  - | 3.11.2.1  
 ࠠ   |ࠠ   
 (150150) +- 1 . |(150150) +- 1 .
 |
 3.11.2.2   | 3.11.2.2   -
  0,3  (3 /2). |  0,3  (3 /2).
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.23
     |    蠠 
  ( 6) - |  ( 6)
    |  
(15 +-1) ,   - | (15 +-1) ,  -
  ()   |   ()
  .  - |    -
    - |.    -
蠠 3-4 젠 砠  |   3-4  
   5 , - |    5
    - |,    
 .    | .  
 ,    |  ,
   . |     -
 | .
 3.11.2.3  蠠 | 3.11.2.3   -
 0,001  (0,01 /2) | 0,001  (0,01 /2)
 |
 ࠠ 󠠠  |    -
 ,  - | ,  - -
    - |    -
 ,   | ,  -
   - |   
. |.
 |
    - |     -
      |     -
    - |    
      |     -
2 .   , - | 2 .   ,
 頠  | 頠 
  10-15   , |  10-15   , -
   120-140 |   120-140
.Ѡ     |.     40-60
40-60 ,    |,     
  5-6   - | 5-6   
 󠠠 ࠠ . |  . 
ϳ   |   .
 . |
 |
    - |    -
   Ҡ 10704, |   Ҡ 10704, 
   |  -
젠 젠  |   -
. |.
 |
 3.11.3   | 3.11.3  
 |
 |
 3.11.3.1   | 3.11.3.1   -
  0,3  (3 /2) |  0,3  (3 /2)
 |
    - |    -
   , - |    -
     - |,     -
 . |  .
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.24
 3.11.3.2   | 3.11.3.2   -
 0,001  (0,01 /2) | 0,001  (0,01 /2)
 |
      |     
,    |,   -
    - |    
,   Ġ  | , 
  . | Ġ   
 |.
 |
 砠  24  |   24  
   |    -
   . | .  
    - |   -
 . |.
 |
 3.11.4 ࠠ  | 3.11.4 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
 ,   - |   
 ,   |,    -
    |   
     |    
' . | .
 |
 3.12  | 3.12  -
򳠠 |
 |
 3.12.1   | 3.12.1   
   | 
 |
   , |   -
   - |,  
  200 .. |  200 ..
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
 3.12.2   | 3.12.2   
   | 
 |
 3.12.2.1  - | 3.12.2.1  -
 ࠠ   |    
蠠 (10050) +- 1 , |(10050) +- 1 ,  
   - | .
. |
 |
     |    
,   Ġ  |,   Ġ 
  . |  .
 |
    |   -
    |    
   50   |   50  
 . | .
 ꠠ  |   -
󠠠   |    
     - |    -
' . |.
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.25
 3.12.3   | 3.12.3  
. |
 |
 蠠   |    -
    - |    -
  , - |   , -
     - |     -
 . | .
 |
     |    
,    |,    -
. |.
 |
 3.12.4 ࠠ  | 3.12.4 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
 3.12.4.1 ,  - | 3.12.4.1  
    |   -
,  ࠠ  |,    -
  蠠  |    
蠠   |  .
. |
 |
 3.13   | 3.13  
 ⠠  |   -
⠠ ࠠ 󠠠  |    
 |
 |
 3.13.1   | 3.13.1   
   | 
 |
   , |   -
   - |,  
  300 .. |  300 ..
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
  ࠠ  |    166.
166. |
 |
 3.13.2   | 3.13.2   
   | 
 |
 3.13.2.1  - | 3.13.2.1  -
 ࠠ   |    
蠠 (10050) +- 1 , |(10050) +- 1 ,  
   - | .
. |
 |
 3.13.2.2  - | 3.13.2.2  -
  (l4)  - |  (l4)  -
     |   
0,2 . | 0,2 .
 |
     |    
,   Ġ  |,   Ġ 
  . |  .
 |
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.26
 ꠠ  |   -
    |    
  '  |    -
    |    
     |   50  
50    . | .
 |
 3.13.3   | 3.13.3  
 |
 |
 蠠   |    -
    - |    -
  , - |   , -
     - |     -
 .   - | .  
 砠 ,   |  ,  
  (l5). |  (l5).
 |
 3.13.4  蠠 | 3.13.4 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
   (1), 󠠠 |   (1), 
,   - |,   
 l - l
 5 4
 1 = -----------  100, ( 6 )
 l
 4
 l -    - | l -   
 4 , ; | 4 , ;
 |
l -    - |l -   
 5 , . | 5 , .
 |
    1 |    1 %.
%. |
 |
 3.14    | 3.14   -
  |  
 |
 3.14.1   | 3.14.1   
   | 
 |
   , |   -
   - |,  
  200 .. |  200 ..
 |
    - |    -
    0,05 . |  堠 
 |0,05 .
 |
    25336. |    25336.
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.27
 3.14.2   | 3.14.2   
   | 
 |
     |    
,   Ġ  |,   Ġ 
  . |  .
 |
    |   -
(m )    - | (m )    -
 4 | 4
     - |   
 50    . (- |  50    .
   - |(  
     |    
 󠠠 ' |   ).
). |
 |
 3.14.3   | 3.14.3  
 |
 |
 蠠   |    -
    - |    -
  , - |   , -
     - |     -
 .   - | .  
 砠 ,   |  ,  
   (m ). |   (m ).
 5 | 5
 |
 3.14.4 ꠠ  | 3.14.4 ꠠ 
  | 
 |
     |    -
(Q),  ,  | (Q),  , 
 | 
 m - m
 4 5
 Q = -------------  100, ( 7 )
 m
 4
 m -    - | m -   
 4 , ; | 4 , ;
 |
m -    - |m -   
 5 , . | 5 , .
 |
    0,1 |    0,1
%. |%.
 |
 3.15   | 3.15   -
    - |    -
ࠠ |
 |
 3.15.1   | 3.15.1   
   | 
 |
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.28
    - |    -
    0,02 . |  堠 
 |0,02 .
 |
    |   -
     - |   
  500  1000 3 |    500
   Ҡ 25336 | 1000 3   
 頠 ,  | 25336   -
   |,   -
    - |   -
 . |   -
 |.
 |
  . |  .
 |
    |   
   14919. |   14919.
 |
   , |   -
   - |,  
  200 .. |  200 ..
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
    25336. |    25336.
 |
   砠  |    
   6613. |   6613.
 |
    Ҡ  |     
    21241. | 頠  
 |21241.
 |
   Ҡ 19908  |   Ҡ 19908 
 9147. | 9147.
 |
  . |  .
 |
 ͳ. | .
 |
     |   
. | .
 |
 ٳ . |  .
 |
    9572. |    9572.
 |
   Ҡ 5789  |   Ҡ 5789 
 9880. | 9880.
 |
   | 䠠 
   4. |   4.
 |
 3.15.2   | 3.15.2   
   | 
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.29
 3.15.2.1  - | 3.15.2.1  -
 ࠠ   |    
蠠 (10050) +- 1 , |(10050) +- 1 ,  
   - | .
. |
 |
 3.15.2.2  - | 3.15.2.2  
     |    -
   , |   ,
    (m6). |ࠠ 젠  
 |(m ).
 | 6
 |
 3.15.3   | 3.15.3  
 |
 |
 3.15.3.1 蠠  | 3.15.3.1   -
  | 
    - |    -
    - |    -
     |    
  ,  | 젠 ,
  ,   |   ,
,  ' . |  ,  -
  젠  | .   
    |   -
     |    
,     |  ,  
 . |   .
 |
 ,    | ,   
     |    -
 ,  | ,  (m ).
(m ).    - | 7
 7 |
     |    
  . |    -
 | .
 ,  砠  | ,   
   , |   ,
 (m ). | (m ).
 8 | 8
 |
  ,   |  ,  
  (  1 ), |  (  1 ),
   - |   -
    (m )  |    (m )
 9 | 9
 (m ).   - |  (m ).   -
 10 | 10
   , |   ,
   (600 |   (600 +-
+-10) .    |10) .    
   . |  .
 ϳ    |     -
   |    
      - | 30   
 (m ). |(m ).
 11 | 11
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.30
    |  蠠 
   - |   -
   - | 󠠠 
   0,04 . |   0,04 .
 |
 3.15.3.2   - | 3.15.3.2   -
   |   -
 |
 |
     |    
    - |   
  ,   | ,   -
,     |,    -
(m ). 젠   | (m ).    -
 7 | 7
    - |    -
      |     
󠠠   |  
  (m ), |  (m ), -
 12 | 12
   , | 砠 
   ,  |,   
 (m ). |,   (m ).
 13 | 13
 |
 |
 ó    |    
    - |    -
,  젠  |,    -
   |   -
頠   |   
   ' |    
   - | . -
.   |   
 '  - | ,  
,     |   -
   ( +- 1) |  (30 +- 1) .
. |
 |
 ϳ  - |   -
     |    -
     |    -
    - |     
  20-30 ,  |  堠 20-30
    - |,     -
. | .
 |
   - |   -
 砠 蠠  |   
     |    
 020.   |頠 020.  
 (m ),   | (m ),  
 14 | 14
,   (m ),  - |,   (m ), -
 15 | 15
  . |  .
 |
 3.15.4 ࠠ  | 3.15.4 ࠠ 
  | 
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.31
 3.15.4.1   | 3.15.4.1  
    糠  |    -
  ( ),  |   ( ), 
 1 | 1
   , - |   , -
   |  
 M = (m - m ) 200, ( 8 )
 1 6 7
 m -    - | m -   
 6  , ; | 6
 | ,;
 |
 m -    |m -   
 7   | 7
     |   
   - |   ,
 , ; |;
 |
200 -   |200 -  
   1 2. |   1 2.
 |
    1 |    1 .
. |
 |
 3.15.4.2 ࠠ  | 3.15.4.2  
 砠   |    -
 ( ),    - | ( ),    -
 2 2
 ,   - | ,   -
: |:
 |
 1)   砠 | 1)    -
  | 
 M = (m - m ) 200, ( 9 )
 2 7 8
 m -    - | m -   
 8 | 8
   砠 |   
    - |    -
   , ; | ,;
 |
 2)    - | 2)    -
   - |   -
 |
 M = (m - m - m ) 200, ( 10 )
 2 13 12 15
 m -  , ; | m -  , ;
 12 | 12
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.32
m -     |m -    
 13 | 13
    - |   
, ; |, ;
 |
m -  ,  |m -  , -
 15 | 15
    |    ,
, . |.
 |
 3.15.4.3   | 3.15.4.3  
  ( ),   |  ( ),  -
 3 | 3
  ,  |   , -
  |  
 M = M + M , ( 11 )
 3 1 2
 3.15.4.4   | 3.15.4.4  -
(N),   䠠  | (N),    
 ,   | ,  
: |:
 |
 1)  ⠠  | 1)    -
  | 
 (m - m ) 100
 11 9
 N = ----------------  100 ( 12 )
 (100-A) (m - m )
 10 9
m -   - | m -   -
 9  , ; | 9  , ;
 |
m -     |m -     
 10  , ; | 10 ,
 |
m -     |m -    
 11  , ; | 11  , ;
 |
 -    󠠠 |  -  
, %. |  , %.
 |
    - |   
    - |   
    - |  
     |   
 19728.17. |   19728.17.
 |
 2)    - | 2)    -
   - |   -
 |
 m 200
 14
 N = ------------  100, (13)
 M
 2
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.33
 m -  , ; | m -  , ;
 14 | 14
 |
̠ -    |̠ -  
 2 | 2
  , ; |   , ;
 |
 |
200 -   |200 -  -
   1 2. |    12.
 |
    1 %.|    1 %.
 |
 3.16   - | 3.16   -
     |    
    |    -
   蠠 |   
 |
 3.16.1   | 3.16.1   
   | 
 |
    - |    -
    0,02 . |  堠 
 |0,02 .
 |
    |   -
     - |   
  500  1000 3 |    500
   Ҡ 25336 | 1000 3   
 頠 ,  | 25336   -
   |,   -
    - |   -
 . |   -
 |.
 |
   , |   -
   - |,  
  200 .. |  200 ..
 |
    25336. |    25336.
 |
  . |  .
 |
    9572. |    9572.
 |
   Ҡ 5789  |   Ҡ 5789 
 9880. | 9880.
 |
   | 䠠 
   4. |   4.
 |
  . |  .
 |
 3.16.2   | 3.16.2   
    |   -
  | 
 |
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.34
 3.16.2.1  - | 3.16.2.1  
   ,  - |  ,  -
   |    
   3.15.3. |3.15.3.
 |
 3.16.2.2  - | 3.16.2.2 
   3.15.3.2. | ⠠ 蠠 
ϳ   |3.15.3.2.   -
   , |  
     | ,  
   |    -
20-30 ,     |   20-30 , 
  (m ). |   
 16 | (m ).
 | 16
 |
 3.16.3 ࠠ  | 3.16.3 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
 3.16.3.1   | 3.16.3.1  
  ( ),  , - |  (M ),  ,
 4 | 4
   |  
 |
 M = m - (m - m ) K , ( 14 )
 4 16 8 16 1
 m -    c- | m -    -
 8 | 8
,   3.15.3.1; |,  
 |3.15.3.1;
 |
m -    - |m -    -
 16 | 16 , ;
, ; |
 |
ʠ - ,  󺠠 |ʠ - , 
 1 | 1  
  , |,    -
    - |   
     | ,  
,    ࠠ | 
 |
 100 - 
 K = ---------- . ( 15 )
 1 
ʠ   򳠠 |K   
 1 | 1
 ,     | ,  
20739     = 99% - | 20739   
- 0,0101;   = 98 % - 0,0204. | = 99% - 0,0101;   =98% -
 |- 0,0204.
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.35
    1 .|   1 .
 |
 3.16.3.2 ³  | 3.16.3.2 堠 
    |    -
   () - |   () -
   |  
 |
 ( m - m ) ( 1 + K )
 8 16 1
  = ----------------------- ( 16 )
 M
 4
 |
    0,01|  򠠠 
 |0,01.
 |
 3.17    | 3.17   
  򳠠 |  
 |
     |    -
 ( ),    - |  ( ),  
 | 5
 5 |  , -
 ,   |    -
   |   -
   3.15.3.2  |  3.15.3.2   
   |
 M
 4
  = ------- 200, ( 17 )
 5 K
 2
 ̠ -    |  , -   
 4 | 4
 , ; | , ,
 |
 -   蠠 |K -  
 2 | 2
    蠠 |    
   - |   
,     |,  
 |
 100 - W
 
  = -----------, ( 18 )
 2 100
 W -  , -| W -  ,
  | 
     |   
, % ( ); | , % ( );
 |
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.36
200 -   |200 -  
   1 2 . |   1 2.
 |
    1 .|    1 .
 |
 3.18   - | 3.18   -
,     - |,    -
  ' 볠  |    -
 Ⳡ |   -
 |
 |
 |
 3.18.1   | 3.18.1   
   | 
 |
    - |    -
    0,02 . |  堠 
 |0,02 .
 |
    |   -
     - |   
  500  1000 3 |    500
   Ҡ 25336 | 1000 3   
  ,  | 25336   -
   |,   -
    - |   -
 . |   -
 |.
 |
 |
   , |   -
   - |,  
  200 .. |  200 ..
 |
    |   
   14919. |   14919.
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
 |
    25336. |    25336.
 |
 |
 ͳ. | .
 |
   砠  |    
   6613. |   6613.
 |
    Ҡ  |     
    21241. | 頠  
 |21241.
 |
  . | .
 |
   |   
  4. | 4.
 |
    20015. |    20015.
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.37
    9976. |    9976.
 |
     |   
. | .
 |
 ٳ . | ٳ .
 |
 3.18.2   | 3.18.2   
   | 
 |
 3.18.2.1  - | 3.18.2.1  -
 ࠠ   |    
蠠 (10050) +-1 , |(10050) +- 1 ,  
   - | .
. |
 |
 3.18.2.2   | 3.18.2.2  
   |  
    - |    -
,    |,   
 (   | (   -
  |   -
    񠠠 |     -
)   |)  
(m ). |( m ).
 17 | 17
 |
 3.18.3   | 3.18.3  
 |
 |
 3.18.3.1  - | 3.18.3.1 
   3.15.3.2, | ⠠ 蠠 
蠠   |3.15.3.2,    -
,   |,  
3.18.1. ϳ  - |3.18.1.   -
    - |    -
  ,  |  ,  
     |    -
  20-30 ,  |   20-30 , 
    - |   
 (m ). | (m ).
 18 | 18
 |
 3.18.3.2   - | 3.18.3.2   -
  | 
 |
     - |    
    |  
 ( m  m ). |  (-
 19 20 | m  m ).
 | 19 20
 |
 3.18.3.3   - | 3.18.3.3   -
   - |   -
 |
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.38
   - |   -
 砠 蠠  |   
,    |,   -
  |    
  , - |,   
     020. | 頠 020. ,
,   砠 |  , 
, (  ). 󠠠 |(m ).   -
 19 | 19
  ( m ). | (m ).
 20 | 20
 |
 3.18.4 ࠠ  | 3.18.4 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
 3.18.4.1  ' | 3.18.4.1  
(̠ ),     |(̠ )
 6 | 16
 ,   |    
 |,   -
 |
 M = [ ( m - m ) ( 1+K ) + m ] 200, ( 19 )
 6 17 18 1 19
 m -     | m -    
 17 | 17
 , ; | , ;
 |
m -     |m -    
 18 | 18
 , ; | , ;
 |
m -  , ; |m -  , ;
 19 | 19
 |
 -   3.16.3.1; |K -   3.16.3.1;
 1 | 1
 |
 200 -   |200 -  
   1 2. |   12.
 |
    1 |    1 .
. |
 |
 3.18.4.2  1 2  | 3.18.4.2  1 2 
(̠ ),  ,   |(̠ ),  ,  
 7 | 7
 |
 M = [ m -(m -m ) K ] 200, ( 20 )
 7 20 17 18 1
 m -   ࠠ | m -   
 20 | 20
 , ; | , ;
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.39
K -   3.16.3.1. |ʠ -   3.16.3.1.
 1 | 1
 |
 |
    1 .|   1 .
 |
 3.18.4.3   | 3.18.4.3  -
(N),     '- | ( N ),    -
,    |
 | ,   -
 |
 m 200
 19
 N = -------------  100, ( 21 )
 M
 6
  200 -  - | 200 -  -
    1 2; |    1 2;
 |
̠ -  '  1 2 |̠ -    1 2
 6 | 6
, . |, .
 |
    1 |    1 %.
 |
 |
 3.19   '- | 3.19   -
    |   
 |
 3.19.1   | 3.19.1   
   | 
 |
    - |    -
    0,02 . |  堠 
 |0,02 .
 |
    |   
   14919. |   14919.
 |
    Ҡ  |     
    21241. | 頠  
 |21241.
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
 ͳ. | .
 |
  . |  .
 |
 ٳ. | .
 |
 3.19.2   | 3.19.2   
   | 
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.40
 3.19.2.1  - | 3.19.2.1  -
 ࠠ   |    
蠠 (10050) +- 1 , |(10050) +-1 .  
   - | .
. |
 |
 3.19.2.2  - | 3.19.2.2  
     |    -
   , |   ,
    (m ). |   
 21 |(m ).
 | 21
 |
 3.19.3   | 3.19.3  
 |
 |
 |
    - |    -
   糠  |   
 󠠠  |    
   | 젠 ,
 ,    |   ,
,   ,  |  ,  -
' .   | .   
    |   
'    |    -
 ,    - |,      -
  . |.
 |
 , 頠  | ,   -
',  (m ). |,  (m ).
 22 | 22
 |
 3.19.4 ࠠ  | 3.19.4 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
  ' 糠  |    -
  ( )  |   ( ) 
 9 | 9
    - |    -
   |  
 M = ( m - m ) 200, ( 22 )
 9 21 22
 m -  , ; | m , -  , ;
 21 | 21
 |
m -    , |m -   
 22 | 22
  ', ; | , ;
 |
200 -   |200 -  
   12. |   1 2.
 |
    1 . |    1 .
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.41
 3.20   '- | 3.20   -
   ' |   
' ⠠  |   -
렠 |
 |
 3.20.1   | 3.20.1   
   | 
 |
    - |    -
    0,02 . |  堠 
 |0,02 .
 |
     |   -
 ,   |   , -
   200 |  -
.. |  200 ..
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
  . |  .
 |
 3.20.2   | 3.20.2   
    |   -
  | 
 |
 3.20.2.1  - | 3.20.2.1  
 ࠠ   |ࠠ   
 (100100) +-1 . |(100100) +-1 .
 |
 3.20.2.2 ³   | 3.20.2.2   
 ,  - | ,  
   , | , 
    |   (100100)
(100100) +- 1. |+-1 .
 |
     |    
 (̠  ̠ ). | (̠  ̠ ).
 . . | . .
 |
     |    
  '   |    
堠 15 㠠   | 15    
3.15.3.1.    - |3.15.3.1.   
   (12 +-1) , |   (12 +-1) ,
  ,    |  ,  -
     |    
젠 (60 +-1) 젠  |   (60 +-1)
     |     
 (18 +2) .Ѡ  |  (18 +-2) .
  . |   -
     |.    -
 3 ./  - |   3 ./
,    - | ,   -
   . |    -
 |.
 |
 3.20.3 ࠠ  | 3.20.3 ࠠ 
  | 
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.42
 3.20.3.1  ' | 3.20.3.1  
(M ).     |(̠ ),    
 10 | 10
,    |,   
 |
 |
 M = ( M - M ) 100,(23)| M = ( M - M ) 100,(23)
 10 . . | 10 . .
 |
 |
 |
 ̠ -   , :| ̠ -   -
 . | .
 |, ;
 |
 |
M -   , ; |̠ -   ,
 . | .
 |;
 |
100 -   |100 -  
   1 2. |   1 2.
 |
    1 .|    1 .
 |
 3.21   | 3.21   -
 蠠  |   -
 |
 |
 3.21.1   | 3.21.1   
   | 
 |
    - |    -
    0,02 . |  堠 
 |0,02 .
 |
    |   -
     - |   
  500  1000 3 |    500
   Ҡ 25336 | 1000 3   
 頠 ,  | 25336   -
   |,   -
    - |   -
 . |   -
 |.
 |
   , |   -
   - |,  
  200 .. |  200 ..
 |
 ˳    |   
427. |Ҡ 427.
 |
   Ҡ 25336. |    25336.
 |
  . |  .
 |
   |   
 Ҡ 4. |  4.
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.43
   Ҡ 20015. |    20015.
 |
    9976. |    9976.
 |
 ࠠ ࠠ  |   
 . | .
 |
 3.21.2   | 3.21.2   
   | 
 |
 3.21.2.1  - | 3.21.2.1  
 ࠠ   |ࠠ   
 (5050) +- 1 . |(5050) +- 1 .
 |
 3.21.2.2    | 3.21.2.2   -
 ,   | ,   -
 ,  - | ,  -
   (m ). |   ( m ).
 23 | 23
 |
 3.21.3   | 3.21.3  
 |
 |
   |   
  3.15.3.2. ϳ |  3.15.3.2. 
   |  
     - |    
,    |,   -
    |    -
 20-30 ,   |   20-30 , -
 蠠   |    
(m ). | ( m ).
 24 | 24
 |
 3.21.4 ࠠ  | 3.21.4 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
    |    -
  (̠ ),  - |  (̠ ),  -
 11 | 11
   , - |   , -
   |  
  = (m - m ) 400, ( 24 )
 11 23 24
 m -     | m -    
 23 | 23
 , ; | , ;
 |
m -     |m -    -
 24 | 24
 , ; |  , ;
 |
400 -   |400 -  
   1 2. |   1 2.
 |
    1 .|   1 .
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.44
 3.22   1 2 | 3.22   1 2
󠠠 |
 |
 3.22.1   | 3.22.1   
   | 
 |
    - |    -
    0,02 . |  堠 
 |0,02 .
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
 3.22.2   | 3.22.2   
  , - | , 
    |   
  - | 
 |
 |
 3.22.2.1  - | 3.22.2.1  
 ࠠ   |ࠠ   
 (100100) +- 1 . |(100100) +- 1 .
 |
 3.22.2.2 󠠠 1 2 | 3.22.2.2  1 2 -
 (̠ ),  , - | (̠ ),  , -
 12 | 12
  Ⳡ  |   
    - |    
 M = m 100, ( 25 )
 12 25
 m -  , ; | m -  , ;
 25 | 25
 |
100 -   |100 -  
   1 2. |   1 2.
 |
    1 .|    1 .
 |
 3.23   | 3.23  -
    |   
' | 
 |
 󠠠  |   -
   ' - |    -
   11507   |  Ҡ 11507  
.    |.   
     |    
  (100100) +-1 |  (100100) +-1
젠   3.15.3.1. |    3.15.3.1.
  ᠠ  |    -
 . | .
 |
  '  |    
  . | .
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.45
 '   50-100 .|   50-100 .
 |
 3.24   | 3.24  -
'    |   -
' |  
 󠠠 ' |   -
   ' - |    -
   11506   |   11506  
.  - |.  
    |    
 砠 젠  |젠 젠 
 (17,7 +-0,2) . |(17,7 +-0,2) .
 |
 蠠   |   
     |    
  (100100) +-1 |  (1  100)+
젠   3.15.3.1. |-1     3.15.3.1.
  ᠠ  |    -
 . | .
 |
  '  |    
    . |   .
 |
 '   50-100 .|    50-100 .
 |
 3.25   - | 3.25   -
蠠 |
 |
 3.25.1   | 3.25.1   
   | 
 |
 ,   - | ,  
   7,   |   7,  -
    - |    -
     |     -
(6040) +-2 젠 砠  | (6040) +-2   -
 1,2,3  14 ( |  1,2,3  14 (-
 0,5 )  - |  0,5 )  -
 ,  󺠠 | , -
   (120 +-2) |    (120
.    |+-2) .   
 500 . | 500 .
    - |    -
    0,02 . |  堠 
 |0,02 .
 |
 . | .
 ˳   Ҡ |   
427. | 427.
 |
 3.25.2   | 3.25.2   
   | 
 |
 3.25.2.1  - | 3.25.2.1  -
 ࠠ   |    
 (17050) +-1 , - |(17050) +- 1 ,  
   󠠠 | .
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.46
 3.25.2.2 ꠠ  | 3.25.2.2  
(m )   - |(m )   
 26 | 26
   頠 |    -
   - |  . -
.    |   (2,0 +-0,1)
(2,0 +- 0,1)   젠 |    
   젠 |     
     |   -
  - |     
    젠 | (30 +-1) .  -
 ( +-1) . ϳ |    -
  , |   
   , |  (m ).
 ,   | 27
(m ). |
 27 |
 |
 3.25.3 ࠠ  | 3.25.3 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
   (),  - |   (),  -
  ,   - |  ,   -
 |
  = m - m , (26)
 26 27
 |
 m -    - | m -   
 26 | 26
, ; |, ;
 |
m -    |m -   
 27 | 27
, . |, .
 |
    0,1 |    0,1
. |.
 |
 3.26   | 3.26  
 蠠  |  
󠠠 |
 |
 3.26.1   | 3.26.1   
   | 
 |
  ,   |  , 
󠠠 󠠠  |   -
ࠠ 󠠠  |    0-1000
 0-1000  (1-100 ) | (1-100 )    
     2 | 2 (0,2 )  
(0,2 )    |  -
⠠ ,  |    +-1 %. -
,   +-1%. - |   -
ࠠ ࠠ  |   -
   |  (50 +- 5) /.
  (50 +- 5) |
/. |
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.47
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
 . | .
 |
    9548. |    9548.
 |
    |   -
(32050) +- 10. | (32050) +- 10 .
 |
   . |   .
 |
     |   
. | .
 |
 3.26.2   | 3.26.2   
   | 
 |
 3.26.2.1  - | 3.26.2.1  -
   - |   -
蠠 (300200) +- 1 , | (300200) +- 1 , -
   - |   -
. |.
 |
 3.26.2.2  - | 3.26.2.2  
    |   
 ,    |,    
   3-5   |  3-5   ,
,    |頠  
160-180 .,   - |160-180 .,   -
. |.
 |
 |
 3.26.3   | 3.26.3  
 |
 |
 3.26.3.1   | 3.26.3.1  -
     - |     
 ,      | ,   
   50    |     50   -
  24 .   |   24 . 
  ,  - |   , -
   |   
 .   | .  
ࠠ  ꠠ |   
   - |    
  蠠 蠠  |  (22050) +-1
(22050) +-1    -|     -
   3.4.3. |  3.4.3.
 |
    |    -
,   20   |,   20   -
   . |   .
 |
 3.26.4 ࠠ  | 3.26.4 ࠠ 
  | 
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.48
    - |    -
  (  Р ), |  (   ),
 ,   - | ,   -
 |
 P - P
  
 Р = --------------  100, ( 27 )
 P
 
 Р -    | Р -   
 c | 
, (); |, ();
 |
Р -   - |Р -   -
 񠠠 | 
 ,  (); | ,  ().
 |
    1 |    1 %.
%. |
 |
 3.27  | 3.27  -
 . | 
 |
 |
 3.27.1   | 3.27.1   
   | 
 |
 ࠠ - | ࠠ -
-2. |-2.
 |
 ˳    |   
427. | 427.
 |
 . | .
 |
  . |  .
 |
 3.27.2   | 3.27.2   
   | 
 |
 3.27.2.1  - | 3.27.2.1  
 ࠠ   |ࠠ   
蠠 (10050) +- 1 , |(10050) +- 1 .  
   - | .
. |
 |
 3.27.2.2   | 3.27.2.2  -
    ,  |     ,
    |    -
     |    
(300 +- 10) .  | (300 +-10) . 
    |   
 - 350-370 .  | - 350-370 . 
  3-4  |  3-4 
 . | .
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.49
 3.27.3   | 3.27.3  
 |
 |
    - |    -
  ,   |   , -
    - |     -
,    . | ,    -
 |.
 |
 3.27.4 ࠠ  | 3.27.4 ࠠ 
  | 
 |
 ,   - |   
 ,   |,   
󠠠  |  ()
 () - |    
 ࠠ 砠   |   
    |   -
    | .
. |
 |
 3.28   | 3.28  -
 󠠠 |  
 |
    - |    -
     |    
    |   
0,5 . |0,5 .
 |
 3.29   | 3.29 堠 
 |
 |
    - |   
 󠠠  |   -
   ' |    
  ,   | ,  
  . , |  . 
   - |  ,
,     |    
    |   -
    |   
. |.
 |
 3.30  򳠠 | 3.30  
 |
  򳠠  |   
    |   
     |    
 12.1.044. | 12.1.044.
 |
 3.31 ࠠ  | 3.31  
  | 
 |
    - |     
   ,  |蠠  ,
 Ġ    |     -
,     | ,   
,  : | ,  -
 |:
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.50
1)   |1)  
   ; |   ;
 |
2)   -  |2)   -  
  ,  - | ,  ,
 ,   |  
 ,   - | ,   -
  , , - |  , ,
 ,   , | ,   ,
    , |    ,
  ; |  ;
 |
3)     - |3)     -
   ,ࠠ | -   ,  
    , |   ,
    ; |    ;
 |
4)    - |4)    -
    (), |    (), 
    ࠠ |    (/2),
 (/2),  󠠠 |    
   (/2), 堠 | (/2),  
    - |   -
   ; |   ;
 |
5)   - |5)  
  -  ( - |  - 
 )    | ( )  
     |   
   0,001  (0,01 |    
 /2)   堠 |  0,001  (0,01
 24 ; | /2)    
 | 24 ;
 |
6)   - |6)  
  -  ( - |  - 
 )    - | ( )   -
    蠠 |    -
    0,001 ࠠ |     -
 (0,01 /2)  堠 |  0,001  (0,01 /2)
  24 ; |     24 ;
 |
7)    |7)   -
 ; |  ;
 |
8)      - |8)      -
  ; |  ;
 |
9) - (  |9) - ( -
 )   - | )   
  ; | ;
 |
10)   |10)  
 ( ); | ( );
 |
11)- |11)-
 ( )  ࠠ | ( )  
  ; |  ;
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.51
12)- |12)- (
 ( )  | )   
    - |   -
  ; | ;
 |
13)   蠠 |13)  
   ; |    ;
 |
14)    |14)   
  ; |  ;
 |
15)   󠠠 |15)   
 /2   ࠠ | /2   
  ; |  ;
 |
16)   蠠 |16)   
  /2   蠠 |  /2    -
    蠠 |    
   ; |   ;
 |
17)   頠 |17)   
   /2; |   /2;
 |
18) '  /2,  |18)   /2, 
   /2   - |   /2  
     '- |    
    - |    -
  ; |  ;
 |
19) '  , |19)   
  ,  /2; |   /2;
 |
20) '  /2  |20)   /2  -
  ' |   
 '  . - |  .  
   ; | ;
 |
21)   - |21)   -
    /2; |    /2;
 |
22) 1 2   ; |22) 1 2   ;
 |
23)  - |23)  -
    ' |     
  . ; | .;
 |
24) ' |24)  -
    .; |    .;
 |
25)   /; |25)   /;
 |
26)  蠠 |26)   -
    %; |    %;
 |
27) - |27) --
  ( ) |  ( ) -
  ; |  ;
   .2.7-83-99 ( 2678-94) C.52
28) -- |28) -
  ( ) | ( ) 
   - |  
     |    -
 ; | ;
 |
29); |29);
 |
30)    |30)   
 . | .
 |
 3.32  ࠠ | 3.32  -
 | 
 |
   ⠠ |  
 - 10%. |  - 10%.
 |
 ---------------------------------------------------------------
    
 (') ()
         
    -     -
 -  1.   1.
 --------------
    
 (') ()
         
    -     -
 -  2.   2.
 ---------------
     
 () ()
        
 ----------------------------------------------
 ʠ 19 
 Ⳡ : 蠠 |  : 
   - |   -
,  . |,  .